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BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Vascular pathology and Alzheimer disease (AD) pathology have been shown to coexist in the brains of dementia patients. We investigated how cognitive impairment could be exacerbated in a rat model of combined injury through the interaction of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and amyloid beta (Aβ) toxicity. METHODS In Wistar rats,(More)
The receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) has been reported to have a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study investigated RAGE levels in the hippocampus and cortex of a triple transgenic mouse model of AD (3xTg-AD) using western blotting and immunohistochemical double-labeling to assess cellular localization.(More)
Sulforaphane, an organosulfur compound present in cruciferous vegetables, has been shown to exert neuroprotective effects in experimental in vitro and in vivo models of neurodegeneration. To determine whether sulforaphane can preserve cognitive function, we examined its effects on scopolamine-induced memory impairment in mice using the Morris water maze(More)
In the current investigation, the status of the septo-hippocampal cholinergic pathway and hippocampal mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling was examined in male Wistar rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion, which showed cognitive deficits based on assessment on a version of the Morris water maze. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by(More)
Neuroinflammation plays a key role in the initiation and progression of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Chronic neuroinflammation results in diminished synaptic plasticity and loss of GluN1 N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in the hippocampus, leading to the cognitive deficits that are the most common symptoms of AD. Therefore, it is(More)
Vascular dementia (VaD) is the second most common form of dementia caused by cerebrovascular disease. Several recent reports demonstrated that cholinergic deficits are implicated in the pathogenesis of VaD and that cholinergic therapies have shown improvement of cognitive function in patients with VaD. However, the precise mechanisms by which donepezil(More)
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion can lead to ischemic white matter injury resulting in vascular dementia. To characterize white matter injury in vascular dementia, we investigated disintegration of diverse white matter components using a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. METHODS Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was modeled in(More)
Fructus mume (F. mume) has been used as a medicinal food in Japan and has been reported to have anti-inflammatory effects in inflammatory bowel disease and macrophage-mediated inflammation. We investigated the effects of F. mume extracts on cognitive dysfunction in rats with chronic cerebral hypoperfusion and the molecular mechanisms underlying these(More)
The vascular depression hypothesis suggests that there is an association between cerebrovascular pathophysiology and depression in the elderly. We investigated depressive-like behaviors and perturbations in the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in a rat model of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion. We modeled chronic cerebral hypoperfusion by permanent(More)
Studies of rats with chronic bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAo), an animal model for vascular dementia (VaD), have reported hippocampus-dependent memory impairment and associated neuropathologies. Patients with VaD also experience attentional shifting dysfunction. However, animal models of VaD have not been used to study attentional function.(More)