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BACKGROUND Dabrafenib is an inhibitor of BRAF kinase that is selective for mutant BRAF. We aimed to assess its safety and tolerability and to establish a recommended phase 2 dose in patients with incurable solid tumours, especially those with melanoma and untreated, asymptomatic brain metastases. METHODS We undertook a phase 1 trial between May 27, 2009,(More)
BACKGROUND The genes boule and dazl are members of the DAZ (Deleted in Azoospermia) family encoding RNA binding proteins essential for germ cell development. Although dazl exhibits bisexual expression in mitotic and meiotic germ cells in diverse animals, boule shows unisexual meiotic expression in invertebrates and mammals but a bisexual mitotic and meiotic(More)
Recent genome-wide association studies indicate that a simple alteration of Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene expression may contribute to the etiology of sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the expression and regulation of LRRK2 protein in the sporadic PD brains remain to be determined. Here, we found that the expression of LRRK2 protein(More)
The C-type lectin dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing nonintegrin (DC-SIGN) mediates the innate immune recognition of microbial carbohydrates. We investigated the function of this molecule in the host response to pathogens in vivo, by generating mouse lines lacking the DC-SIGN homologues SIGNR1, SIGNR3, and SIGNR5. Resistance(More)
The recognition of carbohydrate moieties by cells of the innate immune system is emerging as an essential element in antifungal immunity, but despite the number and diversity of lectins expressed by innate immune cells, few carbohydrate receptors have been characterized. Mincle, a C-type lectin, is expressed predominantly on macrophages, and is here shown(More)
Cone arrestin (CAR) is a novel member of the arrestin superfamily expressed in retinal cone photoreceptors and the pineal gland. To understand the regulatory mechanisms controlling its cone- and pineal-specific expression, and to facilitate further functional studies using gene knockout approaches, we characterized the genomic organization and the(More)
—Most existing discriminative tracking algorithms use a sampling-and-labeling strategy to collect examples, and treat the training example collection as a task that is independent of classifier learning. However, the examples collected directly by sampling are neither necessarily informative nor intended to be useful for classifier learning. Updating the(More)
Following intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), red blood cells release massive amounts of toxic heme that causes local brain injury. Hemopexin (Hpx) has the highest binding affinity to heme and participates in its transport, while heme oxygenase 2 (HO2) is the rate-limiting enzyme for the degradation of heme. Microglia are the resident macrophages in the brain;(More)