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Seed metabolites are critically important both for plant development and human nutrition; however, the natural variation in their levels remains poorly characterized. Here we profiled 121 metabolites in mature seeds of a wide panel Oryza sativa japonica and indica cultivars, revealing correlations between the metabolic phenotype and geographic origin of the(More)
Received (Day Month Year) Accepted (Day Month Year) Communicated by (xxxxxxxxxx) In this paper, we study the state complexities of two particular combinations of operations: catenation combined with union and catenation combined with intersection. We show that the state complexity of the former combined operation is considerably less than the mathematical(More)
Received (Day Month Year) Accepted (Day Month Year) Communicated by (xxxxxxxxxx) This paper is a continuation of our research work on state complexity of combined operations. Motivated by applications, we study the state complexities of two particular combined operations: catenation combined with star and catenation combined with reversal. We show that the(More)
This paper studies the state complexity of (L 1 L 2) R , L 2008] for the state complexity of (L 1 L 2) R coincides with the lower bound and is thus the state complexity of this combined operation by providing some witness DFAs. Also, we show that, unlike most other cases, due to the structural properties of the result of the first operation of the(More)
This paper is a continuation of our research work on state complexity of combined operations. Motivated by applications, we study the state complexities of two particular combined operations: catena-tion combined with star and catenation combined with reversal. We show that the state complexities of both of these combined operations are considerably less(More)
This paper studies conditions under which the operation of parallel insertion can be reversed by parallel deletion, i.e., when does the equality (L1 ⇐ L2) ⇒ L2 = L1 hold for languages L1 and L2. We obtain a complete characterization of the solutions in the special case when both languages involved are singleton words. We also define comma codes, a family of(More)
Seed development dedicates to reserve synthesis and accumulation and uncovering its genetic and biochemical mechanisms has been a major research focus. Although proteomic and transcriptomic analyses revealed dynamic changes of genes and enzymes involved, the information regarding concomitant metabolic changes is missing. Here we investigated the dynamic(More)
We have developed a novel colorimetric sensor based on a digital camera and white LED illumination. Colorimetric sensor arrays (CSAs) were made from a set of six chemically responsive dyes impregnated on an inert substrate plate by solution casting. Six common amine aqueous solutions, including dimethylamine, triethylamine, diisopropylamine, aniline,(More)