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Toxoplasma gondii strains differ dramatically in virulence despite being genetically very similar. Genetic mapping revealed two closely adjacent quantitative trait loci on parasite chromosome VIIa that control the extreme virulence of the type I lineage. Positional cloning identified the candidate virulence gene ROP18, a highly polymorphic serine-threonine(More)
The enteric pathogen Toxoplasma gondii is controlled by a vigorous innate T helper 1 (Th1) cell response in the murine model. We demonstrated that after oral infection, the parasite rapidly recruited inflammatory monocytes [Gr1(+) (Ly6C(+), Ly6G(-)) F4/80(+)CD11b(+)CD11c(-)], which established a vital defensive perimeter within the villi of the ileum in the(More)
Calcium controls a number of critical events, including motility, secretion, cell invasion and egress by apicomplexan parasites. Compared to animal and plant cells, the molecular mechanisms that govern calcium signalling in parasites are poorly understood. Here we show that the production of the phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) controls calcium signalling(More)
Toxoplasma gondii undergoes differentiation from rapidly growing tachyzoites to slowly growing bradyzoites during its life cycle in the intermediate host, and conversion can be induced in vitro by stress. Representative strains of the three clonal lineages showed equal capacity to differentiate into bradyzoites in vitro, as evidenced by induction of(More)
Herein we characterized various genetic markers and the biological behavior of a natural recombinant strain of Toxoplasma gondii (P-Br). From nine genetic markers analyzed, three (B1, ROP1, and SAG1) and three (cS10-A6, GRA6, and SAG3) markers belong to parasites from the type I and type III lineages, respectively. The SAG2 and L363 loci were shown to be(More)
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is caused by a protozoan of the genus Leishmania and is transmitted by sand flies. The state of Espírito Santo (ES), an endemic area in southeast Brazil, has shown a considerably high prevalence in recent decades. Environmental niche modelling (ENM) is a useful tool for predicting potential disease risk. In this study, ENM was(More)
Background: Toxoplasmosis is caused by the intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, which has a worldwide distribution. Here, in the first study of asymptomatic infection by this protozoan in the state of Espírito Santo, Brazil, we present an analysis of the prevalence and annual incidence of asymptomatic cases of toxoplasmosis in a rural area of this(More)
Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus is the main ectoparasite affecting livestock worldwide. For a successful parasitism, ticks need to evade several immune responses of their hosts, including the activation of the complement system. In spite of the importance of R. microplus, previous work only identified one salivary molecule that blocks the complement(More)
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