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mothur aims to be a comprehensive software package that allows users to use a single piece of software to analyze community sequence data. It builds upon previous tools to provide a flexible and powerful software package for analyzing sequencing data. As a case study, we used mothur to trim, screen, and align sequences; calculate distances; assign sequences(More)
Nitrous oxide (N2O) is an important greenhouse gas in the troposphere controlling ozone concentration in the stratosphere through nitric oxide production. In order to quantify bacteria capable of N2O reduction, we developed a SYBR green quantitative real-time PCR assay targeting the nosZ gene encoding the catalytic subunit of the nitrous oxide reductase.(More)
Denitrification is a facultative respiratory pathway in which nitrite (NO2(-)), nitric oxide (NO), and nitrous oxide (N2O) are successively reduced to nitrogen gas (N(2)), effectively closing the nitrogen cycle. The ability to denitrify is widely dispersed among prokaryotes, and this polyphyletic distribution has raised the possibility of horizontal gene(More)
Ruminant livestock are important sources of human food and global greenhouse gas emissions. Feed degradation and methane formation by ruminants rely on metabolic interactions between rumen microbes and affect ruminant productivity. Rumen and camelid foregut microbial community composition was determined in 742 samples from 32 animal species and 35(More)
High-throughput 454 pyrosequencing was applied to investigate differences in bacterial and fungal communities between replant and closely situated control non-replant (fallow) soils. The V1-V3 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the ITS1 region of fungi from the different soils were sequenced using 454 pyrosequencing (Titanium chemistry), and data(More)
The effect of standard agricultural management on the genetic heterogeneity of nitrous oxide reductase (nosZ) fragments from denitrifying prokaryotes in native and cultivated soil was explored. Thirty-six soil cores were composited from each of the two soil management conditions. nosZ gene fragments were amplified from triplicate samples, and PCR products(More)
Few studies have been conducted on adaptations of microbial communities to low and fluctuating temperatures using environmentally relevant conditions. In this study, six Himalayan and two temperate soils were selected as candidates for low-temperature/freeze-thaw (FT)-adapted and susceptible soils, respectively. Redundancy analysis with forward selection(More)
In this study, microcosms were used to investigate the influence of temperature (4 and 28 degrees C) and water content (45% and 90% WHC) on microbial communities and activities in carbon-rich fen soil. Bacterial, archaeal and denitrifier community composition was assessed during incubation of microcosms for 12 weeks using terminal restriction fragment(More)
BACKGROUND The Himalaya with its altitude and geographical position forms a barrier to atmospheric transport, which produces much aqueous-particle monsoon precipitation and makes it the largest continuous ice-covered area outside polar regions. There is a paucity of data on high-altitude microbial communities, their native environments and responses to(More)
SUMMARY BEsTRF (Best Estimated T-RF) provides a standalone environment for analyzing primers-enzymes-gene section combinations used in terminal-restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP) for its optimal resolution. User-defined sequence databases of several hundred thousand DNA sequences can be explored and the resolution of user-specified sets of(More)