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Activation of protein kinase Cbeta (PKCbeta) has been repeatedly implicated in tumor-induced angiogenesis. The PKCbeta-selective inhibitor, Enzastaurin (LY317615.HCl), suppresses angiogenesis and was advanced for clinical development based upon this antiangiogenic activity. Activation of PKCbeta has now also been implicated in tumor cell proliferation,(More)
Elevated eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) function induces malignancy in experimental models by selectively enhancing translation of key malignancy-related mRNAs (c-myc and BCL-2). eIF4E activation may reflect increased eIF4E expression or phosphorylation of its inhibitory binding proteins (4E-BP). By immunohistochemical analyses of 148(More)
Expression of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (eIF4E) is commonly elevated in human and experimental cancers, promoting angiogenesis and tumor growth. Elevated eIF4E levels selectively increase translation of growth factors important in malignancy (e.g., VEGF, cyclin D1) and is thereby an attractive anticancer therapeutic target. Yet to date, no(More)
The mechanism underlying sequence-specific positioning of nucleosomes on DNA was investigated. African green monkey alpha-satellite DNA was reconstituted in vitro with histones. Histone octamers were found to adopt one major and several minor positions on the satellite repeat unit, very similar to those positions found previously in vitro, demonstrating(More)
The PTEN tumor suppressor gene is frequently inactivated in human prostate cancers, particularly in more advanced cancers, suggesting that the AKT/protein kinase B (PKB) kinase, which is negatively regulated by PTEN, may be involved in human prostate cancer progression. We now show that AKT activation and activity are markedly increased in(More)
Tissue recombinants of embryonic urogenital sinus mesenchyme (UGM) and epithelium of the urinary bladder (urothelium, BLE) of adult rats and mice were grown for 3-30 d in male syngeneic hosts. Short-term in vivo growth indicated that prostatic morphogenesis is initiated as focal outgrowths from the basal aspect of the adult urothelium. The solid epithelial(More)
PURPOSE The AKT/PKB kinase controls many of the intracellular processes that are dysregulated in human cancer, including the suppression of apoptosis and anoikis and the induction of cell cycle progression. Three isoforms of AKT have been identified: AKT-1, -2, and -3. Selective up-regulation of AKT-3 RNA expression has been reported in hormone-independent(More)
Phospholipase A2 (PLA2) enzymes release arachidonic acid from cellular phospholipids in a variety of mammalian tissues, including prostate. Group IIa secretory PLA2 (sPLA2) can generate arachidonate from cellular phospholipids. We examined the group IIa sPLA2 expression in benign prostatic tissues, prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN), and(More)
Androgens, in particular dihydrotestosterone (DHT), play a key role in differentiation, growth, and maintenance of the mammalian prostate. Production of DHT from testosterone is catalyzed by two distinct membrane-bound steroid 5 alpha-reductase [5 alpha-reductase; 3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid delta 4-dehydrogenase; 3-oxo-5 alpha-steroid:(acceptor) delta(More)
PURPOSE Arachidonate release contributes to prostate tumor progression as arachidonate is metabolized into prostaglandins and leukotrienes, potent mediators of immune suppression, cellular proliferation, tumor motility, and invasion. The group IIa sPLA2 (sPLA2-IIa) can facilitate arachidonate release from cellular phospholipids. We therefore sought to(More)