Blaire Steven

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A combination of culture-dependent and culture-independent methodologies (Bacteria and Archaea 16S rRNA gene clone library analyses) was used to determine the microbial diversity present within a geographically distinct high Arctic permafrost sample. Culturable Bacteria isolates, identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing, belonged to the phyla Firmicutes,(More)
Culture-dependent and culture-independent methods were used in an investigation of the microbial diversity in a permafrost/massive ground ice core from the Canadian high Arctic. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis as well as Bacteria and Archaea 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed differences in the composition of the microbial communities in the(More)
Permafrost represents 26% of terrestrial soil ecosystems; yet its biology, essentially microbiology, remains relatively unexplored. The permafrost environment is considered extreme because indigenous microorganisms must survive prolonged exposure to subzero temperatures and background radiation for geological time scales in a habitat with low water activity(More)
We have developed a simple and sensitive method to detect microbial respiration at subzero temperatures. Microbial activity was detected by measuring (14)CO(2) evolved during the microbial-mediated mineralization of [1-(14)C] acetic acid or [2-(14)C] glucose in microcosm assays using modified (14)CO(2) traps. Various (14)CO(2) traps, designed to withstand(More)
A novel, moderately halophilic, endospore-forming bacterial strain, designated Hal 1T, was isolated from a permafrost core collected from the Canadian high Arctic. The temperature for growth of strain Hal 1T was 0-30 degrees C with no growth observed at either -5 or 37 degrees C (optimum growth at about 25 degrees C). Strain Hal 1T was able to grow at NaCl(More)
To isolate Sinorhizobium meliloti mutants deficient in malate dehydrogenase (MDH) activity, random transposon Tn5tac1 insertion mutants were screened for conditional lethal phenotypes on complex medium. Tn5tac1 has an outward-oriented isopropyl-beta-D-thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG)-inducible promoter (Ptac). The insertion in strain Rm30049 was mapped to the(More)
The molybdenum cofactor of the barley mutant R9401 is not able to reconstitute NADPH nitrate reductase activity from extracts of the N. crassa nit-1 mutant nor is it able to effect dimerisation of the nitrate reductase subunits present in the R9401 mutant. Unphysiologically high levels of molybdate cannot restore nitrate reductase and xanthine dehydrogenase(More)
A Gram-positive, aerobic, rod-shaped bacterium (strain Eur1 9.5(T)) was isolated from a 9-m-deep permafrost sample from the Canadian high Arctic. Strain Eur1 9.5(T) could not be cultivated in liquid medium and grew over the temperature range 5-37 degrees C; no growth was observed at 42 degrees C and only slow growth was observed at 5 degrees C following 1(More)
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