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BACKGROUND The best way to initiate dopaminergic therapy for early Parkinson disease remains unclear. OBJECTIVE To compare initial treatment with pramipexole vs levodopa in early Parkinson disease, followed by levodopa supplementation, with respect to the development of dopaminergic motor complications, other adverse events, and functional and(More)
BACKGROUND The effects of constant-current deep brain stimulation (DBS) have not been studied in controlled trials in patients with Parkinson's disease. We aimed to assess the safety and efficacy of bilateral constant-current DBS of the subthalamic nucleus. METHODS This prospective, randomised, multicentre controlled trial was done between Sept 26, 2005,(More)
Essential tremor (ET) is the most prevalent movement disorder. It is unknown to what extent ET clusters within families, and the role of genetic susceptibility in etiology of ET has not been adequately investigated at the population level. The problem is largely methodological, with few well-designed studies. The Washington Height-Inwood Genetic Study of(More)
BACKGROUND Deficiency of aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase (AADC) is associated with severe developmental delay, oculogyric crises (OGC), and autonomic dysfunction. Treatment with dopamine agonists and MAO inhibitors is beneficial, yet long-term prognosis is unclear. OBJECTIVE To delineate the clinical and molecular spectrum of AADC deficiency, its(More)
BACKGROUND Mutations in parkin are estimated to account for as much as 50% of familial Parkinson disease (PD) and 18% of sporadic PD. Single heterozygous mutations in parkin in both familial and sporadic cases may also increase susceptibility to PD. To our knowledge, all previous studies have been restricted to PD cases; this is the first study to(More)
OBJECTIVE To evaluate the frequency of leucine-rich repeat kinase gene (LRRK2) mutations and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in early-onset Parkinson disease (EOPD) and late-onset Parkinson disease (LOPD). METHODS We genotyped five previously reported LRRK2 mutations (G2019S, L1114L, I1122V, R1441C, and Y1699C) and 17 coding SNPs for haplotype(More)
OBJECTIVE To assess the cognitive phenotype of glucocerebrosidase (GBA) mutation carriers with early-onset Parkinson disease (PD). METHODS We administered a neuropsychological battery and the University of Pennsylvania Smell Identification Test (UPSIT) to participants in the CORE-PD study who were tested for mutations in PARKIN, LRRK2, and GBA.(More)
The role of heredity in early- versus late-onset Parkinson's disease (PD) is controversial. We estimated the degree of increased risk of PD in first-degree relatives of 221 PD probands with age of onset 50 years or younger and 266 PD probands with age of onset older than 50 years compared with the first-degree relatives of 409 control probands. Risk of PD(More)
OBJECTIVE Subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation for patients with medically refractory Parkinson disease (PD) is expanding. Reported experience has provided some indication of techniques, efficacy, and morbidity, but few centres have reported more than 50 patients. To expand this knowledge, we reviewed our experience with a large series of consecutive(More)
Essential tremor (ET) is a common condition that is present in as many as 23% of elderly individuals. Our objective was to determine the risk of ET and to study the impairment resulting from ET among relatives of ET cases compared to relatives of controls. ET cases and matched controls from the Washington Heights-Inwood community, New York, and their first-(More)