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Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons, including the nociceptors that detect painful thermal, mechanical, and chemical stimuli, transmit information to spinal cord neurons via glutamatergic and peptidergic neurotransmitters. However, the specific contribution of glutamate to pain generated by distinct sensory modalities or injuries is not known. Here we(More)
Male, female, pregnant female, and fetal ICR mice were compared for their acute sensitivity to four single doses of model carcinogens, as measured by micronucleus formation in polychromatic erythrocytes 24 h after treatment in adult bone marrow and fetal liver at days 17-19 of gestation. Cyclophosphamide caused a dose-responsive increase in micronuclei in(More)
The micronucleus test was performed in male ICR Swiss mice following modification of benzene metabolism by co-administration of aniline, pyridine or naphthalene, or by prior injection of alpha-naphthoflavone. HPLC profiles of urinary metabolites were compared to the effects of these compounds on clastogenicity. Pyridine inhibited both benzene clastogenicity(More)
Benzene was studied in its target organ of effect, the bone marrow, with the micronucleus test and metaphase analysis. Male and female CD-1 mice were treated with 2 doses of benzene (440 mg/kg) or toluene (860 or 1720 mg/kg) or both 24 h apart, and sacrificed 30 h (or 54 h) after the first dose. Benzene-treated animals were pretreated with phenobarbital(More)
1. In isolated hearts of rabbits, perfusion with (-)-noradrenaline (0.0059 to 5.9 micronM) resulted in chronotropic and inotropic responses and a shortening of the interval between peak atrial and peak ventricular tensions (the A-V contraction interval). No dysrhythmias developed but at higher concentrations (590 micronM) 2 out of 7 hearts developed(More)
Trypan blue has previously been shown to inhibit complement-mediated phagocytosis by interaction with the C3 receptor but not with the Fc receptor. In studies reported here, trypan blue inhibited EAC3 rosette formation with human polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) and mononuclear cells, rabbit alveolar macrophages (AM) and peritoneal PMN, and guinea-pig(More)
Pregnancy and development are known to modify carcinogenesis. Little is known about the mechanism for the modulation. These studies investigated the relative sensitivity of nonpregnant, pregnant, and fetal mice to the induction of covalent DNA modifications and micronucleated erythrocytes by 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO). Our results revealed that 4-NQO(More)
Pyridine has been shown to be a much more potent inhibitor than other solvents of the metabolism and therefore the clastogenicity of benzene. In this report, pyridine prevented benzene-derived micronucleus formation in the bone marrow of ICR Swiss mice at much lower levels than xylene did. Time-course experiments did not indicate any delay in the peak(More)
The attempt has been made recently to categorize carcinogens into two mechanistic types based on their mechanism of action: genotoxic (capable of reacting with and damaging DNA) and epigenetic (unable to damage DNA to any detectable extent). By requiring that a given chemical fit into one or the other of these narrowly defined categories for regulatory(More)
Objectives of this study were to compare the effects of sex, nutritional status and L-2-oxothiazolidine carboxylate (OTC) treatment on tissue constituents frequently involved in responses to chemical toxins. Four groups of adult CD-1 mice were studied: fed females, fed males, fasted males, and fasted males three hours after treatment with OTC (10 mmoles/kg,(More)