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A novel drug discrimination procedure was used to study the discriminability and subjective effects of caffeine in seven human volunteers who abstained from dietary sources of caffeine. Daily sessions involved p.o. ingestion of two capsules sequentially, one of which contained caffeine and the other placebo, under double-blind conditions. Each day subjects(More)
Biotinidase deficiency is an autosomal recessively inherited disorder that is often characterized by neurologic abnormalities. We reviewed the clinical features of 78 symptomatic children, 11 new patients and 67 previously reported cases, to determine the frequency, type, age at onset, and the responsiveness of seizures to antiepileptic drugs and biotin(More)
Two children with biotinidase deficiency presented with seizures at 2 months of age. The first child had a fluctuating course with continual developmental progress and cessation of seizures despite symptoms of chronic neurologic dysfunction until he was diagnosed at 17 months. The second child had a progressive course with uncontrolled seizures leading to(More)
We describe nine patients with fat malabsorption in whom a spectrum of vitamin E deficiency was present. Early deficiency was generally asymptomatic, and intermediate deficiency produced some impairment. Ataxia, weakness, reflex changes, impaired vision, and pigment retinopathy were associated with chronic, advanced deficiency. In the last group, delayed(More)
Biotinidase deficiency is the primary defect in most individuals with late-onset multiple carboxylase deficiency. We have reviewed the presenting clinical features of 31 children with the disorder. Seizures, either alone or with other neurological or cutaneous findings, are the most frequent initial symptom observed. Other neurological symptoms, such as(More)
As both risk and premotor markers are increasingly discussed to play a key role in the pre-diagnostic phase of Parkinson's disease (PD) the aim of this study was to determine the relation between the risk factors hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN+) and/or positive family history of PD (faPD+) and putative premotor markers for PD. In a(More)
We found that the activity of biotinidase is much lower in human and rat brain or human CSF than in serum or other tissues that have biotin-dependent carboxylase activity. The brain seems to be unable to recycle biotin and depends on biotin transferred across the blood-brain barrier. The biotin-deficient state that results from an inherited lack of(More)
Hyperechogenicity of the substantia nigra (SN) has been proposed to be a typical finding in Parkinson's disease (PD) and a marker of vulnerability to nigrostriatal dysfunction in healthy subjects. This large cross-sectional study including 1120 subjects older than 50 years without any signs of PD was performed to evaluate the association of SN(More)
Transcranial sonography (TCS) is a valuable tool in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, substantia nigra hyperechogenicity (SN+) in TCS has been shown to be also evident in about 8-10% of healthy persons. Neuroimaging studies and slight motor deficits in subjects with SN+ indicate functional impairment of the nigrostriatal system associated(More)
The effects of orally administered placebo, diphenhydramine, lorazepam, methocarbamol and placebo were studied in volunteers with histories of recreational substance abuse including sedative/hypnotics. Placebo, diphenhydramine (100, 200 and 400 mg), lorazepam (1 and 4 mg) and methocarbamol (2.25 and 9 g) were tested in a randomized, double-blind crossover(More)