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Hindlimb loss has evolved repeatedly in many different animals by means of molecular mechanisms that are still unknown. To determine the number and type of genetic changes underlying pelvic reduction in natural populations, we carried out genetic crosses between threespine stickleback fish with complete or missing pelvic structures. Genome-wide linkage… (More)
The molecular mechanisms underlying major phenotypic changes that have evolved repeatedly in nature are generally unknown. Pelvic loss in different natural populations of threespine stickleback fish has occurred through regulatory mutations deleting a tissue-specific enhancer of the Pituitary homeobox transcription factor 1 (Pitx1) gene. The high prevalence… (More)
The outcome of natural hybridization is highly variable and depends on the nonexclusive effects of both pre- and post-mating reproductive barriers. The objective of this study was to address three specific questions regarding the dynamics of hybridization between the American and European eels (Anguilla rostrata and Anguilla anguilla). Using 373 AFLP loci,… (More)
We develop the theories of the strong commutator, the rectangular commutator, the strong rectangular commutator, as well as a solvabil-ity theory for the nonmodular TC commutator. These theories are used to show that each of the following sets of statements are equivalent for a variety V of algebras. (I) (a) V satisfies a nontrivial congruence identity. (b)… (More)
It is shown that if V is any variety of algebras all of whose congruence lattices are modular, then the congruence lattice of every algebra in ~ satisfies the Arguesian law.