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Glycine betaine and its precursors choline and glycine betaine aldehyde have been found to confer a high level of osmotic tolerance when added exogenously to cultures of Escherichia coli at an inhibitory osmotic strength. In this paper, the following findings are described. Choline works as an osmoprotectant only under aerobic conditions, whereas glycine(More)
It has been shown previously that externally added glycine betaine is accumulated in Escherichia coli in response to the external osmotic strength. Here we have shown, by using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and radiochemical methods, that E. coli growing in a glucose-mineral medium of elevated osmotic strength generated with NaCl, had the same(More)
Osmotically stressed Escherichia coli cells synthesize the osmoprotectant glycine betaine by oxidation of choline through glycine betaine aldehyde (choline----glycine betaine aldehyde----glycine betaine; B. Landfald and A.R. Strøm, J. Bacteriol. 165:849-855, 1986. Mutants blocked at the level of choline dehydrogenase were isolated by selection of strains(More)
A novel cold-adapted lipolytic enzyme gene, est97, was identified from a high Arctic intertidal zone sediment metagenomic library. The deduced amino acid sequence of Est97 showed low similarity with other lipolytic enzymes, the maximum being 30 % identity with a putative lipase from Vibrio caribbenthicus. Common features of lipolytic enzymes, such as the(More)
Transitions from unicellularity to multicellularity have occurred several times in the history of life. known as the DRIPs or Mesomycetozoea), Ministeria and Corallochytrium [1,2]. Among these unicellular opisthokonts we should expect to find the closest extant relatives of the multicellular Metazoa and Fungi. Choanoflagellates have traditionally been(More)
A carotenoid-producing yeast strain, isolated from the sub-arctic, marine copepod Calanus finmarchicus, was identified as Rhodosporidium babjevae (Golubev) according to morphological and biochemical characteristics and phylogenetic inference from the small-subunit ribosomal RNA gene sequence. The total carotenoids content varied with cultivation conditions(More)
The influence on fatty acid composition of growth medium composition and phase of growth during batch culture and of dilution rate and growth temperature during continuous culture was studied in the eicosapentaenoic-acid (20:5 n-3)-producing Vibrio CCUG 35308. In glucose-mineral medium, even-numbered normal fatty acyl residues, primarily 16:0, 16:1, 18:1,(More)
Exposure of pristine microbial environments to hydrocarbon contamination stimulates growth of the initially small fraction of indigenous hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria. Custom-made oleophilic fertilizers have been demonstrated to promote oil bioremediation by boosting this proliferation. In the present study, the temporal dynamics of the bacterial community(More)
Spatial variations in composition of marine microbial communities and its causes have largely been disclosed in studies comprising rather large environmental and spatial differences. In the present study, we explored if a moderate but temporally permanent climatic division within a contiguous arctic shelf seafloor was traceable in the diversity patterns of(More)
The term bioprospecting has been adopted for systematic searches in nature for new bioactive compounds, genes, proteins, microorganisms and other products with potential for commercial use. Much effort has been focused on microorganisms able to thrive under harsh conditions, including the Polar environments. Both the lipid and protein cellular building(More)