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The bulk terrestrial biomass resource in a future bio-economy will be lignocellulosic biomass, which is recalcitrant and challenging to process. Enzymatic conversion of polysaccharides in the lignocellulosic biomass will be a key technology in future biorefineries and this technology is currently the subject of intensive research. We describe recent(More)
Bacterial proteins categorized as family 33 carbohydrate-binding modules (CBM33) were recently shown to cleave crystalline chitin, using a mechanism that involves hydrolysis and oxidation. We show here that some members of the CBM33 family cleave crystalline cellulose as demonstrated by chromatographic and mass spectrometric analyses of soluble products(More)
Efficient enzymatic conversion of crystalline polysaccharides is crucial for an economically and environmentally sustainable bioeconomy but remains unfavorably inefficient. We describe an enzyme that acts on the surface of crystalline chitin, where it introduces chain breaks and generates oxidized chain ends, thus promoting further degradation by(More)
One of the main challenges in understanding the composition of fecal microbiota is that it can consist of microbial mixtures originating from different gastrointestinal (GI) segments. Here, we addressed this challenge for broiler chicken feces using a direct 16S rRNA gene-sequencing approach combined with multivariate statistical analyses. Broiler feces(More)
Many fungi growing on plant biomass produce proteins currently classified as glycoside hydrolase family 61 (GH61), some of which are known to act synergistically with cellulases. In this study we show that PcGH61D, the gene product of an open reading frame in the genome of Phanerochaete chrysosporium, is an enzyme that cleaves cellulose using a(More)
Little is known about the potential of Brachypodium distachyon as a model for low temperature stress responses in Pooideae. The ice recrystallization inhibition protein (IRIP) genes, fructosyltransferase (FST) genes, and many C-repeat binding factor (CBF) genes are Pooideae specific and important in low temperature responses. Here we used comparative(More)
The recently discovered lytic polysaccharide monooxygenases (LPMOs) are known to carry out oxidative cleavage of glycoside bonds in chitin and cellulose, thus boosting the activity of well-known hydrolytic depolymerizing enzymes. Because biomass-degrading microorganisms tend to produce a plethora of LPMOs, and considering the complexity and copolymeric(More)
Lignocellulosic biomass is a renewable resource that significantly can substitute fossil resources for the production of fuels, chemicals, and materials. Efficient saccharification of this biomass to fermentable sugars will be a key technology in future biorefineries. Traditionally, saccharification was thought to be accomplished by mixtures of hydrolytic(More)
A xyloglucan-specific endo-1,4β-glucanase (XcXGHA) from Xanthomonas citri pv. mangiferaeindicae has been cloned, expressed in Escherichia coli, purified and characterised. The XcXGHA enzyme belongs to CAZy family GH74 and has catalytic site residues conserved with other xyloglucanases in this family. At its optimal reaction conditions, pH 7.0 and 40 °C, the(More)
Carbohydrate structures are modified and degraded in the biosphere by a myriad of mostly hydrolytic enzymes. Recently, lytic polysaccharide mono-oxygenases (LPMOs) were discovered as a new class of enzymes for cleavage of recalcitrant polysaccharides that instead employ an oxidative mechanism. LPMOs employ copper as the catalytic metal and are dependent on(More)