Learn More
Phosphate activated glutaminase is a key enzyme in glutamate synthesis. Here we have employed a quantitative and high-resolution immunogold procedure to analyse the cellular and subcellular expression of this enzyme in the cerebellar cortex. Three main issues were addressed. First, is phosphate activated glutaminase exclusively or predominantly a(More)
A review of the properties of purified and tissue bound phosphate activated glutaminase (PAG) in brain and kidney (pig and rat) is presented, based on kinetic, electron microscopic and immunocytochemical studies. PAG is a mitochondrial enzyme and two pools can be separated, a soluble and membrane associated one. Intact mitochondria appear to express PAG(More)
The aim of this study was to examine the importance of the vesicle-associated synapsin I and II phosphoproteins for the accumulation of neurotransmitters in central cholinergic as compared to central glutamatergic and GABAergic nerve terminals. In brain homogenate samples from mice devoid of synapsin I and II, the levels of vesicular transporters for(More)
[14C]Glutamine uptake in a crude synaptosomal (P2) fraction, (representing the sum of [14C]glutamine accumulated and [14C]glutamate formed by hydrolysis), is distinct from glutamate uptake. Glutamine uptake is Na+-independent and unaffected by the Na+-K+-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, whereas glutamate uptake is Na+-dependent and inhibited by ouabain. The uptake(More)
Patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) have increased basal concentrations of extracellular glutamate in the epileptogenic versus the non-epileptogenic hippocampus. Such elevated glutamate levels have been proposed to underlie the initiation and maintenance of recurrent seizures, and a key question is what causes the elevation of glutamate in(More)
The cellular concentration of phosphate, the main activator of phosphate activated glutaminase (PAG) is rather constant in brain and kidney. The enzyme activity, however, is modulated by a variety of compounds affecting the binding of phosphate, such as glutamate, calcium, certain long chain fatty acids, fatty acyl CoA derivatives, members of the(More)
When rat brain synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria were incubated with [14C]glutamine, [14C]glutamate was rapidly released to the incubation medium, and the release was stimulated by phosphate, whereas [14C]glutamate accumulated very slowly in the mitochondria and independently of the addition of phosphate. The specific activity of [14C]glutamate(More)
Gln is transported into rat brain synaptic and non-synaptic mitochondria by a protein catalyzed process. The uptake is significantly higher in synaptic than in non-synaptic mitochondria. The transport is inhibited by the amino acids Glu, Asn and Asp, and by the TCA cycle intermediates succinate, malate and 2-OG. The inhibition by 2-OG is counteracted by AOA(More)
Aquaporins are a family of water channels found in animals, plants, and microorganisms. A subfamily of aquaporins, the aquaglyceroporins, are permeable for water as well as certain solutes such as glycerol, lactate, and urea. Here we show that the brain contains two isoforms of AQP9--an aquaglyceroporin with a particularly broad substrate specificity--and(More)
A novel form of phosphate activated glutaminase (PAG), catalyzing the synthesis of glutamate from glutamine, has been detected in cultured astrocytes and SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. This enzyme form is different from that of the kidney and liver isozymes. In these cells we found high enzyme activity, but no or very weak immunoreactivity against the kidney(More)