Björn Thrandur Björnsson

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Sex steroids are known to interfere with the parr-smolt transformation of anadromous salmonids, and environmental estrogens such as nonylphenol have recently been implicated in reduced returns of Atlantic salmon in the wild. To determine the endocrine pathways by which estrogenic compounds affect smolt development and seawater tolerance, groups of juvenile(More)
Population declines of wild Atlantic salmon have been attributed to an array of anthropogenic disturbances, including dams, commercial and recreational fishing, habitat loss, and pollution. Environmental contaminants in particular, can act as environmental stressors on fish, typically causing disruption of ion homeostasis due to their close association with(More)
Population declines of anadromous salmonids are attributed to anthropogenic disturbances including dams, commercial and recreational fisheries, and pollutants, such as estrogenic compounds. Nonylphenol (NP), a xenoestrogen, is widespread in the aquatic environment due to its use in agricultural, industrial, and household products. We exposed Atlantic salmon(More)
Smolting is a hormone-driven developmental process that is adaptive for downstream migration and ocean survival and growth in anadromous salmonids. Smolting includes increased salinity tolerance, increased metabolism, downstream migratory and schooling behavior, silvering and darkened fin margins, and olfactory imprinting. These changes are promoted by(More)
Exposure to hexazinone (HEX) and atrazine (ATZ), highly mobile and widely used herbicides along rivers in the United States, is potentially harmful to Atlantic salmon, which have been listed as an endangered species. To determine the effects of these contaminants on smolt development, juvenile Atlantic salmon were exposed under flow-through conditions to(More)
For Atlantic salmon, the gastrointestinal tract is the site of food digestion and nutrient uptake, a regulatory site for ion and water balance as well as a barrier against invading pathogens. During the parr–smolt transformation and subsequent seawater (SW) transfer, major changes occur in the intestine. A global shortage of fish oils (FO) for feed(More)
Lipids are the predominant source of energy for fish. The mechanisms by which fish allocate energy from lipids, for metabolism, development, growth and reproduction are critical for understanding key life history strategies and transitions. Currently, the major lipid component in aquaculture diets is fish oil (FO), derived from wild capture fisheries that(More)
The effects of GH on various types of behaviour in fish are well documented although the underlying mechanisms are not fully understood. In rainbow trout, an involvement of the brain dopaminergic system in mediating the behavioural effects of GH has been indicated, as GH can alter the brain dopaminergic activity. To further examine the role of the(More)
In order to elucidate the developmental basis for smolting, Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar, parr (b11.5 cm) and smolts (N 12.5 cm) were exposed to natural daylength (LDN) and increased daylength (LD16:8) starting in late February and gill Na + ,K + – ATPase activity and circulating hormone levels monitored from January to May. Gill Na + ,K + –ATPase activity(More)
There is increasing evidence that growth hormone (GH) has important behavioral effects in fish, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. To investigate if peripherally administered GH influences the monoaminergic activity of the brain, and how this is correlated to behavior, juvenile rainbow trout were implanted intraperitoneally with ovine(More)