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Changes in dietary preferences in animal species play a pivotal role in niche specialization. Here, we investigate how divergence of foraging behaviour affects the trophic position of animals and thereby their role for ecosystem processes. As a model, we used two closely related bat species, Myotis myotis and M. blythii oxygnathus, that are morphologically(More)
1. Acoustic methods are used increasingly to survey and monitor bat populations. However, the use of acoustic methods at continental scales can be hampered by the lack of standardized and objective methods to identify all species recorded. This makes comparable continent-wide monitoring difficult, impeding progress towards developing biodiversity(More)
When insects walk, they generally produce sounds. These can reveal the walkers' presence and location to potential predators such as owls, bats and nocturnal primates. Additionally, predators might extract information on taxon, palatability, size or profitability from the rustling sounds. In contrast to ear morphology, hearing physiology and psychoacoustics(More)
Echolocating bats can be divided into guilds according to their preferred habitat and foraging behaviour, which coincide with distinct adaptations in wing morphology and structure of echolocation signals. Although coarse structuring of niche space between different guilds is generally accepted, it is not clear how niches differ within guilds, or whether(More)
Ecological constraints often shape the echolocation pulses emitted by bat species. Consequently some (but not all) bats emit species-specific echolocation pulses. Because echolocation pulses are often intense and emitted at high rates, they are potential targets for eavesdropping by other bats. Echolocation pulses can also vary within species according to(More)
We have demonstrated in behavioural experiments that success in capturing prey from surfaces in 'trawling Myotis' (Leuconoë-type) depends on the acoustic properties of the surface on which the prey is presented. Two types of surface structure were ensonified with artificial bat signals to probe their acoustic characteristics. We have shown that perception(More)
Recognizing species identity is crucial for many aspects of animal life and is often mediated by acoustic signals. Although most animals are able to distinguish acoustic signals of their own species from other sympatrically occurring species, it is yet unknown whether animals can distinguish among acoustic signals of different closely related sympatric(More)
Animals employ an array of signals (i.e. visual, acoustic, olfactory) for communication. Natural selection favours signals, receptors, and signalling behaviour that optimise the received signal relative to background noise. When the signal is used for more than one function, antagonisms amongst the different signalling functions may constrain the(More)
The idea that copulation might increase predation risk is a classic suggestion, but empirical evidence to support it is surprisingly scarce. While some early work found decreased vulnerability to predation during mating, two lab and one very recent field study documented increased predation during mating in freshwater amphipods, water striders and locusts.(More)