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Cholera toxin (CT) is an exceptionally potent adjuvant but, unfortunately, also very toxic. Here we present a powerful new approach to separate toxicity from adjuvanticity by constructing a fusion protein that combines the enzymatically active cholera toxin A1 subunit (CTA1) with targeting to B cells. The CTA1 was genetically linked at its C-terminal end to(More)
The gene for Staphylococcal protein A was fused to the coding sequence of bacterial beta-galactosidase, alkaline phosphatase and human insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). The fusion proteins, expressed in bacteria, were purified by affinity chromatography on IgG-Sepharose and antibodies were raised in rabbits. All three fusion proteins elicited specific(More)
At present few vaccine candidates exists against potentially pandemic influenza virus infections. We provide compelling evidence that a targeted fusion protein based on the CTA1-DD adjuvant and containing tandem repeats of the matrix protein 2 (M2e) ectodomain epitope, CTA1-3M2e-DD, confers strong protective immunity against a potentially lethal challenge(More)
M2 is the third integral membrane protein of influenza A. M2e, the extracellular, 23 amino acid residues of M2, has been remarkably conserved in all human influenza A strains. This prompted us to evaluate the use of M2e as a potential broad-spectrum immunogen in a mouse model for influenza infection. Genetic fusion of the M2e and hepatitis B virus core(More)
Pulmonary surfactant contains two hydrophobic polypeptides, SP-B and SP-C, with known amino acid sequences and with truncated subforms lacking the N-terminal residues. Treatment of SP-C with KOH releases fatty acids (palmitic acid to more than 85%) in molar ratios of 1.8-2.0 relative to the polypeptide. Furthermore, plasma-desorption mass spectrometry shows(More)
The amino acid sequence and the posttranslational modification of the hydrophobic surfactant polypeptide SP-C from canine, rabbit and bovine lungs were established by direct sequence analysis and plasma-desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The results reveal that canine SP-C has only one cysteine residue which, however, is palmitoylated, like the(More)
A gene encoding a variant (lacking amino acids 6-173) of human tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA), consisting only of the second kringle domain (K2) and the serine protease domain (P), was fused to a DNA segment coding for the signal peptide of staphylococcal protein A and a synthetic gene coding for a protein with ability to bind immunoglobulin G(More)
Mucosal vaccination requires effective and safe adjuvants. We have evaluated the non-toxic adjuvant CTA1-DD for mucosal vaccination against influenza. CTA1-DD contains the enzymatically active CTA1 subunit of cholera toxin (CT) genetically fused to a gene encoding a dimer of the D-fragment from Staphylococcus aureus protein A. CTA1-DD only binds to(More)
The ADP-ribosylating enterotoxins, cholera toxin (CT) and Escherichia coli heat-labile toxin, are among the most powerful immunogens and adjuvants yet described. An innate problem, however, is their strong toxic effects, largely due to their promiscuous binding to all nucleated cells via their B subunits. Notwithstanding this, their exceptional(More)
A novel method to obtain specific antibodies against short peptides is described, involving synthesis of the corresponding oligodeoxynucleotides followed by cloning into a new set of fusion vectors, pEZZ8 and pEZZ18, based on two synthetic IgG-binding domains (ZZ) of Staphylococcus aureus protein A. The soluble gene fusion product thus obtained, can be(More)