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Many plants acquire freezing tolerance through cold acclimatization (CA), a prolonged exposure to low but non-freezing temperatures at the onset of winter. CA is associated with gene expression that requires transient calcium influx into the cytosol. Alfalfa (Medicago sativa) cells treated with agents blocking this influx are unable to cold-acclimatize.(More)
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) appear to be ubiquitously involved in signal transduction during eukaryotic responses to extracellular stimuli. In plants, no heat shock-activated MAPK has so far been reported. Also, whereas cold activates specific plant MAPKs such as alfalfa SAMK, mechanisms of such activation are unknown. Here, we report a heat(More)
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