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Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) is caused by a defect in the biosynthesis of cortisol that results in maximal activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis with hyperplasia of the adrenals and hyperandrogenism due to the accumulation of androgen precursors. In the salt-wasting subtype of the disorder, which accounts for appr. 75 % of patients(More)
Light scattering, or the so-called Yule-Nielsen effect, and ink penetration into the substrate paper play important roles in tone reproduction. We develop a framework in which the influences of both of these effects on the reflectance and tristimulus values of a halftone sample are investigated. The properties of the paper and the ink and their bilateral(More)
We extend the applicability of the recently revised Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory to inhomogeneous optical media by treating inhomogeneous ink penetration of the substrate. We propose a method for describing light propagation in either homogeneous or inhomogeneous layers using series representations for the K-M scattering and absorption coefficients as well as(More)
BACKGROUND The aim of this study of native pig mandibles was to investigate the accuracy and quality of the representation of peri-implant defects by intraoral radiography (IR), panoramic radiography (PR), computer tomography (CT), and digital volume tomography (DVT). METHODS The examination was carried out on 19 native pig mandibles. In the toothless(More)
Using a statistical analysis of light propagation in media, we propose a revision to Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory by taking into account the effect of scattering on the path length of light propagation (path variation). This leads to new relationships between the K-M scattering S and absorbing K coefficients and the intrinsic scattering s and absorbing a(More)
The use of spectrophotometers for color measurements on printed substrates is widely spread among paper producers as well as within the printing industry. Spectrophotometer measurements are precise, but time-consuming procedures and faster methods are desirable. The rapid development of digital cameras has opened the possibility to use consumer digital(More)