Björn Horing

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Meta-analyses and re-analyses of trial data have not been able to answer some of the essential questions that would allow prediction of placebo responses in clinical trials. We will confront these questions with current empirical evidence. The most important question asks whether the placebo response rates in the drug arm and in the placebo arm are equal.(More)
BACKGROUND Hypersensitivity to somatic or visceral pain has been reported in numerous clinical conditions such as fibromyalgia or the irritable bowel syndrome, and general hypersensitivity has been proposed to be the underlying mechanism. However, cross-modal relationships especially between somatic and visceral pain have rarely been investigated even in(More)
OBJECTIVE Expectancy and conditioning are underlying mechanisms of placebo and nocebo responses. In previous studies with motion sickness, we could induce nocebo responses by both methods, but no placebo responses. METHODS In Experiment 1, 64 volunteers (50% women, mean age = 23.5 years) were evaluated to determine the degree they realized speed changes(More)
OBJECTIVE Ginger effects on (experimental) nausea have been described, but also strong placebo effects and sex differences when nausea is involved. The "balanced placebo design" has been proposed to allow better separation of drug and placebo effects. METHODS Sixty-four healthy participants (32 women) were randomly assigned to receive an antiemetic ginger(More)
The psychophysiology of visceral pain is--different from cardiac psychophysiology--much less well investigated due to the invasiveness of its methods and problems associated with reliably and reproducibly stimulating as well as recording of the gastrointestinal tract. Despite these problems, the last 30 years have documented a number of psychophysiological(More)
Placebo responses occur in every medical intervention when patients or participants expect to receive an effective treatment to relieve symptoms. However, underlying mechanisms of placebo responses are not fully understood. It has repeatedly been shown that placebo responses are associated with changes in neural activity but for many conditions it is(More)
BACKGROUND Obesity in adults and children is increasing worldwide at alarming rates. Obese children and adolescents are likely to become obese adults with increased risk of a number of comorbidities. In addition to preventing the development of obesity at young age, it is necessary to individualize the therapy of already obese children and adolescents in(More)
Effects of nicotine on neurocognitive performance have been shown but are influenced by nonpharmacological expectancies in smokers, whereas there is little knowledge about expectancy effects in nonsmokers. A half balanced placebo design provides no drug but only placebo and tests the effects of expectations elicited by the information that nicotine was(More)
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