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Previous studies have shown that toluene, which is commonly abused, depresses neuronal activity and causes behavioral effects in both animals and man similar to those observed for ethanol. In this study, the oocyte expression system was used to test the hypothesis that toluene, like ethanol, inhibits the function of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Oocytes(More)
The effect of protein tyrosine kinase (PTK) inhibition on spontaneously hypertensive rat vascular smooth muscle contraction was examined in this study. By using isolated aortic strips, it was found that platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) (0.1-1 nM), an activator of PTKs, elicited contraction with an EC50 of 0.25 +/- 0.08 nM. Treatment with tyrphostin(More)
OBJECTIVE Lung contusion is a major risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1α is the primary transcription factor that is responsible for regulating the cellular response to changes in oxygen tension. We set to determine if hypoxia-inducible factor-1α plays a role in the pathogenesis of acute(More)
The role of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) in vascular smooth muscle (VSM) contraction was examined in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Aorta from SHRs was hyperresponsive to PTK-mediated contraction relative to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKYs). Aorta from SHR was also hyporesponsive to vasorelaxation by tyrphostin, a selective inhibitor of(More)
It is generally accepted that in mammalian brain histamine is metabolized solely by histamine methyltransferase (HMT), to form tele-methylhistamine, then oxidized to tele-methylimidazoleacetic acid. However, histamine's oxidative metabolite in the periphery, imidazoleacetic acid (IAA), is also present in brain and CSF, and its levels in brain increase after(More)
Lung contusion (LC) is a significant risk factor for the development of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) recognizes specific unmethylated CpG motifs, which are prevalent in microbial but not vertebrate genomic DNA, leading to innate and acquired immune responses. TLR9 signaling has recently been implicated as a critical(More)