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The Simple Modular Architecture Research Tool (SMART) is an online resource (http://smart.embl.de/) used for protein domain identification and the analysis of protein domain architectures. Many new features were implemented to make SMART more accessible to scientists from different fields. The new 'Genomic' mode in SMART makes it easy to analyze domain(More)
We report the draft genome sequence of the model moss Physcomitrella patens and compare its features with those of flowering plants, from which it is separated by more than 400 million years, and unicellular aquatic algae. This comparison reveals genomic changes concomitant with the evolutionary movement to land, including a general increase in gene family(More)
Vascular plants appeared ~410 million years ago, then diverged into several lineages of which only two survive: the euphyllophytes (ferns and seed plants) and the lycophytes. We report here the genome sequence of the lycophyte Selaginella moellendorffii (Selaginella), the first nonseed vascular plant genome reported. By comparing gene content in(More)
The conquest of the land by plants required dramatic morphological and metabolic adaptations. Complex developmental programs under tight regulation evolved during this process. Key regulators of plant development are phytohormones, such as cytokinins. Cytokinins are adenine derivatives that affect various processes in plants. The cytokinin signal(More)
MOTIVATION Due to the growing number of completely sequenced genomes, functional annotation of proteins becomes a more and more important issue. Here, we describe a method for the prediction of sites within protein domains, which are part of protein-ligand interactions. As recently demonstrated, these sites are not trivial to detect because of a varying(More)
Prior work has suggested that loss of expression of one or more of the many C/D box small nucleolar RNAs (snoRNAs) encoded within the complex, paternally expressed SNRPN (small nuclear ribonuclear protein N) locus may result in the phenotype of Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). We suggest that the minimal critical region for PWS is approximately 121 kb within(More)
In plants the hormone cytokinin is perceived by members of a small cytokinin receptor family, which are hybrid sensor histidine kinases. While the immediate downstream signaling pathway is well characterized, the domain of the receptor responsible for ligand binding and which residues are involved in this process has not been determined experimentally.(More)
The protein tyrosine phosphatase (PTP) family plays a central role in signal transduction pathways by controlling the phosphorylation state of serine, threonine, and tyrosine residues. PTPs can be divided into dual specificity phosphatases and the classical PTPs, which can comprise of one or two phosphatase domains. We studied amino acid substitutions at(More)
N-Acetyl-beta-D-glucosaminidase (O-GlcNAcase) is a key enzyme in the posttranslational modification of intracellular proteins by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc). Here, we show that this protein contains two catalytic domains, one homologous to bacterial hyaluronidases and one belonging to the GCN5-related family of acetyltransferases (GNATs). Using(More)
Although the catalytic center of an enzyme is usually highly conserved, there have been a few reports of proteins with substitutions at essential catalytic positions, which convert the enzyme into a catalytically inactive form. Here, we report a large-scale analysis of substitutions at enzymes' catalytic sites in order to gain insight into the function and(More)