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The interface between the blood circulation and the neural tissue features unique characteristics that are encompassed by the term 'blood-brain barrier' (BBB). The main functions of this barrier, namely maintenance of brain homeostasis, regulation of influx and efflux transport, and protection from harm, are determined by its specialized multicellular(More)
BACKGROUND In vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) models can be useful for understanding leukocyte-endothelial interactions at this unique vascular-tissue interface. Desirable features of such a model include shear stress, non-transformed cells and co-cultures of brain microvascular endothelial cells with astrocytes. Recovery of transmigrated leukocytes for(More)
The ability of the Blood Brain Barrier (BBB) to maintain proper barrier functions, keeping an optimal environment for central nervous system (CNS) activity and regulating leukocytes' access, can be affected in CNS diseases. Endothelial cells and astrocytes are the principal BBB cellular constituents and their interaction is essential to maintain its(More)
OBJECTIVE To address the hypothesis that physiologic interactions between astrocytes and endothelial cells (EC) at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are afflicted by pathogenic inflammatory signaling when astrocytes are exposed to aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies present in the immunoglobulin G (IgG) fraction of serum from patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO),(More)
In autoimmune neurologic disorders, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) plays a central role in immunopathogenesis, since this vascular interface is an entry path for cells and effector molecules of the peripheral immune system to reach the target organ, the central nervous system (CNS). The BBB's unique anatomic structure and the tightly regulated interplay of(More)
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