Birgit Kühnapfel

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Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection continues to be a complication in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). Preexisting donor immunity is recognized as a favorable prognostic factor for the reconstitution of protective antiviral immunity mediated primarily by CD8 T cells. Furthermore, adoptive transfer of CMV-specific memory CD8 T(More)
During murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) latency in the lungs, most of the viral genomes are transcriptionally silent at the major immediate-early locus, but rare and stochastic episodes of desilencing lead to the expression of IE1 transcripts. This low-frequency but perpetual expression is accompanied by an activation of lung-resident effector-memory CD8 T(More)
Latent cytomegalovirus (CMV) is frequently transmitted by organ transplantation, and its reactivation under conditions of immunosuppressive prophylaxis against graft rejection by host-versus-graft disease bears a risk of graft failure due to viral pathogenesis. CMV is the most common cause of infection following liver transplantation. Although hematopoietic(More)
Low public awareness of cytomegalovirus (CMV) results from the only mild and transient symptoms that it causes in the healthy immunocompetent host, so that primary infection usually goes unnoticed. The virus is not cleared, however, but stays for the lifetime of the host in a non-infectious, replicatively dormant state known as ‘viral latency’. Medical(More)
Enhancers are defined as DNA elements that increase transcription when placed in any orientation relative to a promoter. The major immediate-early (MIE) enhancer region of murine cytomegalovirus is flanked by transcription units ie1/3 and ie2, which are transcribed in opposite directions. We have addressed the fundamental mechanistic question of whether the(More)
Major immediate-early (MIE) transcriptional enhancers of cytomegaloviruses are key regulators that are regarded as determinants of virus replicative fitness and pathogenicity. The MIE locus of murine cytomegalovirus (mCMV) shows bidirectional gene-pair architecture, with a bipartite enhancer flanked by divergent core promoters. Here, we have constructed(More)
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