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We identified cDNAs coding for homologues to tetrapod prion proteins (PrPs) in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) and Japanese pufferfish (Fugu rubripes), which were termed 'similar to PrPs' (stPrPs). Besides significant sequence homologies the fish stPrPs display characteristic structural features in common with tetrapod PrPs. In addition, two stPrPs were shown(More)
Prions result from the misfolding and selective accumulation of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP) in the brain. Despite intensive research on mammalian models, basic questions about the biological role of PrP and the evolutionary origin of prion disease remain unanswered. Following our previous identification of novel fish PrP homologues, here we(More)
A risk framework has been developed to examine the influence of climate change on disease emergence in the United Kingdom. The fish immune response and the replication of pathogens are often correlated with water temperature, which manifest as temperature ranges for infection and clinical diseases. These data are reviewed for the major endemic and exotic(More)
We present a PCR based method to detect Aphanomyces astaci in North American crayfish. Primers were designed to specifically amplify parts of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) regions and the 5.8 rRNA gene of A. astaci. A single round and a semi-nested assay were tested for their sensitivity and specificity. Specificity of the PCR assays was tested(More)
A diagnostic procedure, based on a polymerase chain reaction method (PCR) was developed to detect infection of crayfish with the Oomycete Aphanomyces astaci. A set of oligonucleotide primers was designed to specifically amplify A. astaci DNA in the ITS region surrounding the 5.8S rDNA gene. The PCR amplifies a 115bp amplicon. The specificity of the primers(More)
European catfish Silurus glanis, European eel Anguilla anguilla and rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss were challenged by intramuscular injection of zoospores of Aphanomyces invadans, the oomycete associated with epizootic ulcerative syndrome (EUS). The tropical three-spot gourami Trichogaster trichopterus is known to be highly susceptible and was used as a(More)
In July 2005, 107 rainbow trout in age 1+ from a salmonid farm in Southern Germany situated in the southern tributary area of the Danube river were examined. The aim of this study was to determine the gyrodactylid species found on rainbow trout and to identify their location on the host's body. In total, 291 specimens from genus Gyrodactylus were collected.(More)
Two possible means of transmission of crayfish plague were investigated: via fish (as vectors), and via crayfish (as hosts or vectors when dead). The crayfish transmission experiments focussed on both the viability of the fungus in dead crayfish when kept in simulated field conditions, and on the treatments which kill viable forms of Aphanomyces astaci(More)
We have reviewed the available peer reviewed literature on pathogen load for white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) in species susceptible to infection. Data on pathogen load in traded commodities are relevant for undertaking import risk assessments for a specific pathogen. Data were available for several of the major penaeid shrimp species farmed for aquaculture(More)
Cold water strawberry disease (CWSD), or red mark syndrome (RMS), is a severe dermatitis affecting the rainbow trout Oncorynchus mykiss. The condition, which presents as multifocal, raised lesions on the flanks of affected fish, was first diagnosed in Scotland in 2003 and has since spread to England and Wales. Results of field investigations indicated the(More)