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The evolution of oxygenic photosynthesis had a profound impact on the Earth's surface chemistry, leading to a sharp rise in atmospheric oxygen between 2.45 and 2.32 billion years (Gyr) ago and the onset of extreme ice ages. The oldest widely accepted evidence for oxygenic photosynthesis has come from hydrocarbons extracted from approximately 2.7-Gyr-old(More)
Mitochondrial cytochrome bc1 complex performs two functions: It is a respiratory multienzyme complex and it recognizes a mitochondrial targeting presequence. Refined crystal structures of the 11-subunit bc1 complex from bovine heart reveal full views of this bifunctional enzyme. The "Rieske" iron-sulfur protein subunit shows significant conformational(More)
The record of Archaean microfossils is sparse. Of the few bona fide fossil assemblages, most are from shallow-water settings, and they are typically associated with laminated, stromatolitic sedimentary rocks. Microfossils from deep-sea hydrothermal systems have not been reported in Precambrian rocks (> 544 million years old), although thermophilic microbes(More)
The Stirling Range Formation of southwestern Australia contains discoidal impressions and trace-like fossils in tidal sandstones. The various disks have previously been linked to the Ediacaran biota, younger than 600 million years old. From this unit, we report U-Th-Pb geochronology of detrital zircon and monazite, as well as low-grade metamorphic monazite,(More)
The monthly advective supply of nutrients and nutrient pool sizes in the Kattegat and the Belt Sea are estimated for the period 1989 – 1996 from a combination of time-dependent hydrodynamic model results and concentration measurements of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN), phosphate (DIP) and total nitrogen and phosphorous (TN and TP). The net supply of(More)
Haemagglutinin (HA) is the influenza surface glycoprotein that interacts with infectivity-neutralizing antibodies. As a consequence of this immune pressure, it is the variable virus component, which is important in antigenic drift, that results in recurrent epidemics of influenza. We have determined the crystallographic structure of a complex formed between(More)
A study of the voltage and time dependence of a transepithelial Cl- current in toad skin (Bufo bufo) by the voltage-clamp method leads to the conclusion that potential has a dual role for Cl- transport. One is to control the permeability of an apical membrane Cl-pathway, the other is to drive Cl- ions through this pathway. Experimental analysis of the(More)
Monthly time series of nutrient pools and transport in the Baltic Entrance were computed for the period 1974–1999 from a combination of hydrodynamic model results and observational data obtained in national monitoring programmes. Significant seasonal variations in both nutrient pools and transport were found. For example, inflowing dense nutrient-rich(More)
The Cl- -current through toad skin epithelium depends on the potential in a way consistent with a potential-controlled Cl- permeability. Computer analysis of the Koefoed-Johnsen Ussing two-membrane model provided with constant membrane permeabilities indicates that the voltage- and time-dependent currents are not caused by a trivial Goldmand-type(More)
Iron formations are chemical sedimentary rocks comprising layers of iron-rich and silica-rich minerals whose deposition requires anoxic and iron-rich (ferruginous) sea water. Their demise after the rise in atmospheric oxygen by 2.32 billion years (Gyr) ago has been attributed to the removal of dissolved iron through progressive oxidation or sulphidation of(More)