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Powertrain hybridization as well as electrical energy management are imposing new requirements on electrical storage systems in vehicles. This paper characterizes the associated vehicle attributes and, in particular, the various levels of hybrids. New requirements for the electrical storage system are derived, including: shallow-cycle life, high dynamic(More)
We developed a new system to couple the endoscope to an optical position measurement system (OPMS) so that the image frames from the endoscope camera can be labeled with the accurate endoscopic position. This OPMS is part of the EasyGuide Neuro navigation system, which is used for microsurgery and neuroendoscopy. Using standard camera calibration techniques(More)
The aim of the present investigation was to demonstrate whether children selected by their open lip posture show differences in their nasal airway resistance and facial morphology compared to children with closed lip closure. Thirty-two children with poor lip competence were compared to a control group of 20 with secure mouth closure. Patients with poor lip(More)
In this neuroendoscopic study the authors tested the newly developed "red-out module" of their visual navigation system that enables the neurosurgeon to achieve hemostasis if total visualization is lost due to hemorrhage ("red out") within the visual field. An optical position measurement system connected to the endoscope guarantees that digitized(More)
BACKGROUND Peculiarities of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity in stress-related pain-disorders and potential relations with psychological risk factors of pain chronicity have been discussed controversially. MATERIAL AND METHODS The cortisol awakening responses of 31 low back pain patients (14 acute, 17 chronic) and 14 healthy controls were(More)
During the development of new navigation systems, the ergonomic aspects of the accompanying software are seldom taken into account. The VN system is a navigation system working with real and previously stored neuroendoscopic images. The latter enable the module to execute virtual back movement, e.g. in case of bleeding. Several other modules are offered.(More)
A visual navigation system (VN) was developed which uses intraoperatively stored endoscopic images together with their specific 3D-address. A special calibration enables one to recalculate the distortion of the endoscopic images. Several modules (e. g., landmark tracking, virtual back-movement) are offered to the neurosurgeon. The system was tested in 12(More)
Ziel der vorliegenden Arbeit war die Darstellung möglicher Vorteile der digitalen Lumineszenzradiographie für die Kephalometrie. Dazu wurden konventionell und digitalisiert gewonnene Fernröntgenseitenbilder vergleichend ausgewertet. Der subjektive Eindruck einer verbesserten simultanen Darstellung der knöchernen Strukturen und des Weichteilprofils in(More)
Thanks to their capability for post-processing of image data, the digital radiological techniques introduced from 1970 onwards permit dose reduction with no loss of clinical information. The aim of this study was to establish the extent of possible dose reduction in orthodontic lateral cephalography. For this purpose, lateral cephalograms of a head phantom(More)
The purpose of this study was to present possible advantages of digital luminescence radiography for cephalometry. Conventional and digitalized lateral headfilms were compared and evaluated. The first impression of an improved simultaneous presentation of bony structures and soft tissue profile in digital x-rays was statistically verified. A significant(More)