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P2Y receptors are a class of G protein-coupled receptors activated primarily by ATP, UTP, and UDP. Five mammalian P2Y receptors have been cloned so far including P2Y1, P2Y2, P2Y4, P2Y6, and P2Y11. P2Y1, P2Y2, and P2Y6 couple to the activation of phospholipase C, whereas P2Y4 and P2Y11 couple to the activation of both phospholipase C and the adenylyl cyclase(More)
With advancements in ionization methods and instrumentation, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) has become a powerful technology for the characterization of small molecules and proteins. This article will illustrate the role of LC/MS analysis in drug discovery process. Examples will be given on high-throughput analysis, structural analysis of(More)
Interleukin 10 (IL-10), which was first discovered by its ability to inhibit the synthesis of various cytokines, most notably gamma interferon, from Th1 helper cells, displays pleiotropic immunoregulatory properties. Human and murine IL-10 have a high amino acid sequence identity (ca. 73%) which includes the conservation of all four cysteine residues in(More)
Accelerated proteolytic cleavage of proteins under controlled microwave irradiation has been achieved. Selective peptide fragmentation by endoproteases trypsin or lysine C led to smaller peptides that were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) or liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization (LC-ESI) techniques. The efficacy of(More)
We and others have previously reported that melanoma-specific, cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) define a minimum of six class I-presented peptide epitopes common to most HLA-A2+ melanomas. Here we show that three of these peptide epitopes are coordinately recognized by a CTL clone obtained by limiting dilution from the peripheral blood of an HLA-A2+ melanoma(More)
Consistent with the goals of a comprehensive carbohydrate sequencing strategy, we extend earlier reports to include the characterization of structural (constitutional) isomers. Protocols were developed around ion trap instrumentation providing sequential mass spectrometry (MSn) and supported with automation and related computational tools. These strategies(More)
The isoforms Iso-2, Iso-3, and Iso-4 of Escherichia coli-derived recombinant human interferon alpha-2b (rhIFN α-2b), generated by posttranslational modifications of the protein during fermentation, present a major problem in terms of purification and the yield of the drug substance. We report here the structural characterization of these isoforms by mass(More)