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Co-expression of IL-22 and IL-17 has been identified and demonstrated to be involved in the immunopathogenesis of some autoimmune diseases as well as the defense against pathogenic infections in animal studies. However, the properties of IL-22-producing cells in humans remain largely unclear. In the present study, we showed that IL-22 could be induced from(More)
Th-17 cells, a new subset of effector CD4(+) T cells, have been identified in mice and in humans. In the present study, we show that a high level of IL-17 and a high frequency of IL-17-producing cells were detected by ELISA and ELISPOT assay, respectively, when human PBMCs were stimulated with both anti-CD3 and anti-CD28. Further analysis of IL-17-producing(More)
IL-27, a member of IL-6/IL-12 cytokine family, is mainly produced by activated antigen presenting cells (APC). It has been demonstrated that IL-27 has the pro- and anti-inflammatory properties during immune responses. However, the signaling pathways that contribute to the cytokine generation are still unclear in humans. In the present study, we showed that(More)
The mechanism by which IFN-α regulates the host response to Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) infection in humans is poorly understood. In the present study, we found that freshly isolated pleural fluid mononuclear cells (PFMCs) from tuberculous pleural effusion but not peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) spontaneously expressed IFN-α and IL-1β in(More)
Recent evidence from several studies indicated that IL-17-producing Th17 cells can represent the key effector cells in the induction and development of autoimmune disorders. Cyclosporine A (CsA) is a commonly used immunosuppressant to treat lots of autoimmune diseases including rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here, we demonstrated that PBMCs and purified CD4(+)(More)
CD25+Treg cells (CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells) play a central role in the maintenance of peripheral self-tolerance and immune homoeostasis. A previous study showed that CD25+Treg cells suppressed the differentiation and function of Th1 cells in vivo and in vitro. However, the mechanism of suppressing Th1 cell differentiation mediated by CD25+Treg(More)
In the current study of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB)-specific T and B cells, we found that MTB-specific peptides from early secreted antigenic target-6 (ESAT-6) and culture filtrate protein-10 (CFP-10) induced the expression of IL-21 predominantly in CD4(+) T cells. A fraction of IL-21-expressing CD4(+) T cells simultaneously expressed Th1 cytokines but(More)
Interleukin-21 (IL-21) exerts critical functions in T helper type 17 (Th17) cell development. However, the effect of IL-21 on the differentiation of IL-22-producing T cells is not clear. Here we showed that IL-21 induced the differentiation of human naive CD8(+) T cells into Tc22 cells without the expression of IL-17. The addition of transforming growth(More)
Increasing evidences in animals and humans suggest that CD8(+) T cells contribute significantly to immune defenses against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). In the present study, we found that without any stimulation, CD8(+) T cells in pleural fluid cells (PFCs) expressed significantly higher levels of CD69 than PBMCs from patients with tuberculous pleurisy(More)
Interleukin 21 exerts a variety of regulatory effects on both innate and adaptive immune cells. Although the suppressive effect of IL-21 via the induction of IL-10 in mouse model has been defined, the inhibitory effect of IL-21 in humans is not well understood. In the present study, we showed that IL-21 induced IL-10 production by human naive CD4(+) T(More)