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This paper summarizes our present theoretical understanding of single-molecule kinetics associated with the Michaelis-Menten mechanism of enzymatic reactions. Single-molecule enzymatic turnover experiments typically measure the probability density f(t) of the stochastic waiting time t for individual turnovers. While f(t) can be reconciled with ensemble(More)
Recent single-molecule enzymology measurements with improved statistics have demonstrated that a single enzyme molecule exhibits large temporal fluctuations of the turnover rate constant at a broad range of time scales (from 1 ms to 100 s). The rate constant fluctuations, termed as dynamic disorder, are associated with fluctuations of the protein(More)
The fluctuation of the distance between a fluorescein-tyrosine pair within a single protein complex was directly monitored in real time by photoinduced electron transfer and found to be a stationary, time-reversible, and non-Markovian Gaussian process. Within the generalized Langevin equation formalism, we experimentally determine the memory kernel K(t),(More)
Time-dependent fluctuations in the distance x(t) between two segments along a polymer are one measure of its overall conformational dynamics. The dynamics of x(t), modeled as the coordinate of a particle moving in a one-dimensional potential well in thermal contact with a reservoir, is treated with a generalized Langevin equation whose memory kernel K(t)(More)
The intermittent emission of fluorescent light from single enzymes, quantum dots, and other nanoscale systems is often characterized by statistical correlations in the emitted signal. A one-dimensional model of such correlations in enzymes, based on a model of protein conformational fluctuations developed by Kou and Xie (Phys. Rev. Lett. 2004, 93, 180603),(More)
The distribution of waiting times, f(t), between successive turnovers in the catalytic action of single molecules of the enzyme beta-galactosidase has recently been determined in closed form by Chaudhury and Cherayil [J. Chem. Phys. 125, 024904 (2006)] using a one-dimensional generalized Langevin equation (GLE) formalism in combination with Kramers'(More)
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The detection of sound signals in vertebrates involves a complex network of different mechano-sensory elements in the inner ear. An especially important element in this network is the hair bundle, an antenna-like array of stereocilia containing gated ion channels that operate under the control of one or more adaptation motors. Deflections of the hair bundle(More)
Cargo transport through the nuclear pore complex continues to be a subject of considerable interest to experimentalists and theorists alike. Several recent studies have revealed details of the process that have still to be fully understood, among them the apparent nonlinearity between cargo size and the pore crossing time, the skewed, asymmetric nature of(More)
Enzymes are biological catalysts vital to life processes and have attracted century-long investigation. The classic Michaelis-Menten mechanism provides a highly satisfactory description of catalytic activities for large ensembles of enzyme molecules. Here we tested the Michaelis-Menten equation at the single-molecule level. We monitored long time traces of(More)
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