Learn More
Enzymes are biological catalysts vital to life processes and have attracted century-long investigation. The classic Michaelis-Menten mechanism provides a highly satisfactory description of catalytic activities for large ensembles of enzyme molecules. Here we tested the Michaelis-Menten equation at the single-molecule level. We monitored long time traces of(More)
This paper summarizes our present theoretical understanding of single-molecule kinetics associated with the Michaelis-Menten mechanism of enzymatic reactions. Single-molecule enzymatic turnover experiments typically measure the probability density f(t) of the stochastic waiting time t for individual turnovers. While f(t) can be reconciled with ensemble(More)
Recent single-molecule enzymology measurements with improved statistics have demonstrated that a single enzyme molecule exhibits large temporal fluctuations of the turnover rate constant at a broad range of time scales (from 1 ms to 100 s). The rate constant fluctuations, termed as dynamic disorder, are associated with fluctuations of the protein(More)
The fluctuation of the distance between a fluorescein-tyrosine pair within a single protein complex was directly monitored in real time by photoinduced electron transfer and found to be a stationary, time-reversible, and non-Markovian Gaussian process. Within the generalized Langevin equation formalism, we experimentally determine the memory kernel K(t),(More)
The rheological properties of polymer melts and other complex macromolecular fluids are often successfully modeled by phenomenological constitutive equations containing fractional differential operators. We suggest a molecular basis for such fractional equations in terms of the generalized Langevin equation (GLE) that underlies the renormalized Rouse model(More)
Time-dependent fluctuations in the distance x(t) between two segments along a polymer are one measure of its overall conformational dynamics. The dynamics of x(t), modeled as the coordinate of a particle moving in a one-dimensional potential well in thermal contact with a reservoir, is treated with a generalized Langevin equation whose memory kernel K(t)(More)
Chemical reactions inside cells are typically subject to the effects both of the cell's confining surfaces and of the viscoelastic behavior of its contents. In this paper, we show how the outcome of one particular reaction of relevance to cellular biochemistry--the diffusion-limited cyclization of long chain polymers--is influenced by such confinement and(More)
Single-molecule equations for the Michaelis-Menten [Biochem. Z. 49, 333 (1913)] mechanism of enzyme action are analyzed within the Wilemski-Fixman [J. Chem. Phys. 58, 4009 (1973); 60, 866 (1974)] approximation after the effects of dynamic disorder--modeled by the anomalous diffusion of a particle in a harmonic well--are incorporated into the catalytic step(More)
The Wilemski-Fixman model of diffusion controlled-reactions [J. Chem. Phys. 58, 4009 (1973)] is combined with a generalized random walk description of chain conformations to predict the dependence of the closure time tau on the chain length N of polymers with reactive end groups and nonlocal interactions. The nonlocal interactions are modeled by a(More)
A model of barrier crossing dynamics governed by fractional Gaussian noise and the generalized Langevin equation is used to study the reaction kinetics of single enzymes subject to conformational fluctuations. The direct application of Kramers's flux-over-population method to this model yields analytic expressions for the time-dependent transmission(More)