Binhua Liang

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BACKGROUND In April 2009, a novel triple-reassortant swine influenza A H1N1 virus ("A/H1N1pdm"; also known as SOIV) was detected and spread globally as the first influenza pandemic of the 21(st) century. Sequencing has since been conducted at an unprecedented rate globally in order to monitor the diversification of this emergent virus and to track mutations(More)
Dried blood spots (DBS) are an alternative specimen collection format for HIV-1 genotyping. DBS produce HIV genotyping results that are robust and equivalent to plasma when using conventional sequencing methods. However, using tagged, pooled pyrosequencing, we demonstrate that concordance between plasma and DBS is not absolute and varies according to viral(More)
Sub-Saharan Africa accounts for 69% of the people living with HIV globally. An estimated 1,600,000 Kenyans are living with HIV-1. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has saved 9 million life-years in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, drug resistance mutations reduce the effectiveness of ART, and need to be monitored for effective ART. Naturally occurring primary(More)
Background: Many HIV databases and applications focus on a limited domain of HIV knowledge. Since even a ''simple'' organism like HIV represents a very complex system with many interacting elements, the fractured structure of existing databases and applications likely limits our ability to investigate and understand HIV. To facilitate research, therefore,(More)
Neisseria meningitidis is the agent of invasive meningococcal disease, including cerebral meningitis and septicemia. Because the diseases caused by different clonal groups (sequence types) have their own epidemiological characteristics, it is important to understand the differences among the genomes of the N. meningitidis clonal groups. To this end, a novel(More)
BACKGROUND CD8+ T cell responses are often detected at large magnitudes in HIV-infected subjects, and eliciting these responses is the central aim of many HIV-1 vaccine strategies. Population differences in CD8+ T cell epitope specificity will need to be understood if vaccines are to be effective in multiple geographic regions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL(More)
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