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This paper considers a hybrid heterogeneous network (HetNet), where macro cells adopt massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO), and small cells adopt millimeter wave (mmWave) transmissions. We assume that all base stations (BSs) are solely powered by the renewable energy. The implementation of these emerging techniques has a substantial effect on the(More)
This paper focuses on user association (UA) in energy- cooperation enabled heterogeneous networks (HetNets). Energy-cooperation enables energy to be transferred between base stations (BSs), which can reduce the unnecessary offloading and mitigate the signaling cost and the interference. However, some of the energy will be lost during the energy transfer(More)
Increased energy consumption becomes a major issue in 5G cellular networks, which inspires the network operators to deploy renewable energy sources. However, due to the fluctuating nature of renewable energy sources, the energy harvested by base stations (BSs) may not fit for their load conditions. The transmit power of the BS needs to be redesigned again.(More)
In LTE cellular networks, the pathloss impacts the performance of the uplink channel power control. Therefore, power control algorithms can achieve good performance on the location where user equipment (UE) is not power limited. The baseline parameter setting of the fractional pathloss power control is valid for some scenarios, however, it is a challenging(More)
Y(OH)3:Eu(3+) nanotubes were synthesized by a facile hydrothermal method first, and then Au particles were grown on the surface of Y2O3:Eu(3+) nanotubes by combining the vacuum extraction method and the annealing process. The composite nanotubes were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray photoelectron(More)
One-dimensional SrWO4:Eu(3+) nanostructures were prepared by a hydrothermal method. The structures and morphologies of the nanocrystals were characterized by X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the phase compositions, morphologies and sizes and luminescence(More)
In this paper, TiO2-Bi2S3 and TiO2-Bi2S3:Eu(3+) composite photoanodes were successfully designed, which can not only fully absorb visible light but also transfer the electron from Bi2S3 to TiO2 conduction band due to the narrow band gap and high conduction band of Bi2S3. Compared to pure TiO2 cell, the photoelectric conversion efficiencies of TiO2-Bi2S3 and(More)
SrWO4:Ln3+ (Ln = Eu, Ce, and Tb) nanocrystals were successfully synthesized by a hydrothermal method, and were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The results indicated that the crystalline size of nanocrystals decreases with increasing Eu3+ concentrations and increases with increasing(More)
In the conventional cellular network, each base station (BS) manages its own energy consumption. When a BS lacks sufficient energy, user equipments (UEs) have to be offloaded to the other BSs which leads to higher signaling cost and lower throughput. Energy cooperation schemes allow energy to be transferred among BSs through power grids which reducing the(More)