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Although whole-genome association studies using tagSNPs are a powerful approach for detecting common variants, they are underpowered for detecting associations with rare variants. Recent studies have demonstrated that common diseases can be due to functional variants with a wide spectrum of allele frequencies, ranging from rare to common. An effective way(More)
The laboratory rat (Rattus norvegicus) is an indispensable tool in experimental medicine and drug development, having made inestimable contributions to human health. We report here the genome sequence of the Brown Norway (BN) rat strain. The sequence represents a high-quality 'draft' covering over 90% of the genome. The BN rat sequence is the third complete(More)
Complex trait genome-wide association studies (GWAS) provide an efficient strategy for evaluating large numbers of common variants in large numbers of individuals and for identifying trait-associated variants. Nevertheless, GWAS often leave much of the trait heritability unexplained. We hypothesized that some of this unexplained heritability might be due to(More)
Genetic variation within the male-specific portion of the Y chromosome (MSY) can clarify the origins of contemporary populations, but previous studies were hampered by partial genetic information. Population sequencing of 1204 Sardinian males identified 11,763 MSY single-nucleotide polymorphisms, 6751 of which have not previously been observed. We(More)
Known genetic loci explain only a small proportion of the familial relative risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). We conducted a genome-wide association study of CRC in East Asians with 14,963 cases and 31,945 controls and identified 6 new loci associated with CRC risk (P = 3.42 × 10(-8) to 9.22 × 10(-21)) at 10q22.3, 10q25.2, 11q12.2, 12p13.31, 17p13.3 and(More)
Although analysis pipelines have been developed to use RNA-seq to identify long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), inference of their biological and pathological relevance remains a challenge. As a result, most transcriptome studies of autoimmune disease have only assessed protein-coding transcripts. We used RNA-seq data from 99 lesional psoriatic, 27 uninvolved(More)
There is strong evidence that rare variants are involved in complex disease etiology. The first step in implicating rare variants in disease etiology is their identification through sequencing in both randomly ascertained samples (e.g., the 1,000 Genomes Project) and samples ascertained according to disease status. We investigated to what extent rare(More)
Family samples, which can be enriched for rare causal variants by focusing on families with multiple extreme individuals and which facilitate detection of de novo mutation events, provide an attractive resource for next-generation sequencing studies. Here, we describe, implement, and evaluate a likelihood-based framework for analysis of next generation(More)
To increase our understanding of psoriasis, we used high-throughput complementary DNA sequencing (RNA-seq) to assay the transcriptomes of lesional psoriatic and normal skin. We sequenced polyadenylated RNA-derived complementary DNAs from 92 psoriatic and 82 normal punch biopsies, generating an average of ∼38 million single-end 80-bp reads per sample.(More)
Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) variation can affect phenotypic variation; therefore, knowing its distribution within and among individuals is of importance to understanding many human diseases. Intra-individual mtDNA variation (heteroplasmy) has been generally assumed to be random. We used massively parallel sequencing to assess heteroplasmy across ten tissues(More)