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The purpose of this study was to establish bupropion (BUP) hydroxylation as a selective in vitro marker of cytochrome P450 (CYP) 2B6 catalytic activity. Among a panel of 16 human liver microsomes (HLMs), BUP hydroxylase activity varied 80-fold when assayed at 500 microM substrate and significantly correlated with CYP2B6 blotting density (r(2) = 0.99) and(More)
Oseltamivir is the main medicine recommended by the World Health Organization in anticipation of next influenza pandemic. This anti-influenza viral agent is an ester prodrug, and the antiviral activity is achieved by its hydrolytic metabolite: oseltamivir carboxylate. In this study, we report that the hydrolytic activation is catalyzed by carboxylesterase(More)
Carboxylesterases hydrolyze chemicals containing such functional groups as a carboxylic acid ester, amide and thioester. The liver contains the highest carboxylesterase activity and expresses two major carboxylesterases: HCE1 and HCE2. In this study, we analyzed 104 individual liver samples for the expression patterns of both carboxylesterases. These(More)
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of 14 compounds, which differentially activate human pregnane X receptor (hPXR), to induce CYP2B6 expression and to compare CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 concentration- and time-dependent induction by select inducers. Three primary human hepatocyte preparations were treated daily for 3 days with three(More)
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and clopidogrel are two major antithrombogenic agents that are widely used for the treatment and prevention of cerebro- and cardiovascular conditions such as stroke. Combined use produces enhanced therapeutic effect. Aspirin and clopidogrel both are esters, and hydrolysis leads to decreased or inactivated therapeutic activity.(More)
The pharmacokinetics of celecoxib, a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor, was characterized in beagle dogs. Celecoxib is extensively metabolized by dogs to a hydroxymethyl metabolite with subsequent oxidization to the carboxylic acid analog. There are at least two populations of dogs, distinguished by their capacity to eliminate celecoxib from plasma at either a(More)
The serine hydrolases constitute multi-families of proteins that include lipases, esterases, and proteases. These enzymes contain a signature motif GXSXG, in which the serine residue acts as the nucleophile and initiates catalysis. This report describes the characterization of a novel serine hydrolase from rat. This enzyme exhibits a moderate sequence(More)
Trichostatin A (TSA), a hydroxamate-type inhibitor of mammalian histone deacetylases, is emerging as one of a potentially new class of anticancer agents. TSA is known to act by promoting the acetylation of histones, leading to uncoiling of chromatin and activation of a variety of genes implicated in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation,(More)
Betulinic acid (BA), a pentacyclic triterpene first identified less than a decade ago, has served as a melanoma-specific cytotoxic agent, and yet its specificity is being challenged. Recently, we found that human melanoma cells exhibited less sensitivity to betulinic acid than human skin keratinocytes. This study was designed to investigate the cell(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are intimately associated with developmental events such as cell differentiation and lineage commitment. The HLH domain in the bHLH motif is responsible for dimerization, whereas the basic region mediates DNA binding. Based on sequence alignment and domain analysis, differentially expressed in(More)