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Carboxylesterases hydrolyze chemicals containing such functional groups as a carboxylic acid ester, amide and thioester. The liver contains the highest carboxylesterase activity and expresses two major carboxylesterases: HCE1 and HCE2. In this study, we analyzed 104 individual liver samples for the expression patterns of both carboxylesterases. These(More)
The objectives of this study were to evaluate the ability of 14 compounds, which differentially activate human pregnane X receptor (hPXR), to induce CYP2B6 expression and to compare CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 concentration- and time-dependent induction by select inducers. Three primary human hepatocyte preparations were treated daily for 3 days with three(More)
Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and clopidogrel are two major antithrombogenic agents that are widely used for the treatment and prevention of cerebro- and cardiovascular conditions such as stroke. Combined use produces enhanced therapeutic effect. Aspirin and clopidogrel both are esters, and hydrolysis leads to decreased or inactivated therapeutic activity.(More)
Oseltamivir is the main medicine recommended by the World Health Organization in anticipation of next influenza pandemic. This anti-influenza viral agent is an ester prodrug, and the antiviral activity is achieved by its hydrolytic metabolite: oseltamivir carboxylate. In this study, we report that the hydrolytic activation is catalyzed by carboxylesterase(More)
Celecoxib pharmacokinetics was evaluated after single and multiple oral dosing; after dosing in a solution and as a solid; with and without food; and after administration into different sites of the GI tract using dog. After oral dosing in a solution, celecoxib was rapidly absorbed and reached maximum concentrations by 1 h; absorption was delayed another 1(More)
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a key regulator of genes encoding several major types of cytochrome P450 enzymes and transporters (e.g., multidrug resistance-1, MDR1); therefore, PXR contributes significantly to drug-drug interactions. PXR binds to response elements and confers transactivation. Several target genes such as CYP3A4 and 3A7 contain two PXR(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are intimately associated with developmental events such as cell differentiation and lineage commitment. The HLH domain in the bHLH motif is responsible for dimerization, whereas the basic region mediates DNA binding. Based on sequence alignment and domain analysis, differentially expressed in(More)
Cellular senescence plays an important role in tumor suppression. p53 tumor suppressor has been reported to be crucial in cellular senescence. However, the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. In this regard, a cDNA microarray assay was performed to identify p53 targets involved in senescence. Among the many candidates is DEC1, a basic(More)
Cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) is the most abundant cytochrome P450 enzyme in human liver and metabolizes more than 60% of prescribed drugs in human body. Patients with liver conditions such as cirrhosis show increased secretion of cytokines (e.g., interleukin-6) and decreased capacity of oxidation of many drugs. In this study, we provided molecular evidence(More)
Trichostatin A (TSA), a hydroxamate-type inhibitor of mammalian histone deacetylases, is emerging as one of a potentially new class of anticancer agents. TSA is known to act by promoting the acetylation of histones, leading to uncoiling of chromatin and activation of a variety of genes implicated in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation,(More)