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Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) and clopidogrel are two major antithrombogenic agents that are widely used for the treatment and prevention of cerebro- and cardiovascular conditions such as stroke. Combined use produces enhanced therapeutic effect. Aspirin and clopidogrel both are esters, and hydrolysis leads to decreased or inactivated therapeutic activity.(More)
The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins are intimately associated with developmental events such as cell differentiation and lineage commitment. The HLH domain in the bHLH motif is responsible for dimerization, whereas the basic region mediates DNA binding. Based on sequence alignment and domain analysis, differentially expressed in(More)
Trichostatin A (TSA), a hydroxamate-type inhibitor of mammalian histone deacetylases, is emerging as one of a potentially new class of anticancer agents. TSA is known to act by promoting the acetylation of histones, leading to uncoiling of chromatin and activation of a variety of genes implicated in the regulation of cell survival, proliferation,(More)
Near-infrared light-responsive inorganic nanoparticles have been shown to enhance the efficacy of cancer photothermal ablation therapy. However, current nanoparticle-mediated photothermal ablation is more effective in treating local cancer at the primary site than metastatic cancer. Here, we report the design of a near-infrared light-induced transformative(More)
Oxysterols are intermediates in the synthesis of bile acids and steroid hormones from cholesterol and function as ligands for liver X receptor (LXR). Bile salt export pump (BSEP) is responsible for canalicular secretion of bile acids and is tightly regulated by its substrates bile acids through nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR). In a microarray(More)
Thiazolidinediones (TZD), including troglitazone, rosiglitazone, and pioglitazone, are agonists of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma and belong to a class of insulin-sensitizing drugs for type 2 diabetes mellitus. However, member-specific, PPARgamma-independent activities and toxicity have been reported, especially for troglitazone.(More)
BACKGROUND Oseltamivir, a widely used anti-influenza drug, is hydrolytically activated by carboxylesterase 1 (CES1). The expression of this carboxylesterase is developmentally regulated. This study was performed to determine when after birth infants acquire competence of activating this prodrug. METHODS Liver tissue samples were collected and divided into(More)
The pregnane X receptor (PXR) is a key regulator on the expression of genes involved in the elimination of chemicals. As one of the most divergent members in the nuclear receptor family, PXR is activated in a highly species-dependent manner by certain chemicals. Pregnenolone 16alpha-carbonitrile (PCN), a glucocorticoid antagonist, efficaciously activates(More)
Background: Vitamin A and its derivatives, the retinoids, are essential for normal embryonic development and maintenance of cell differentiation. β, β-carotene 15,15'-monooxygenase 1 (BCMO1) catalyzes the central cleavage of β-carotene to all-trans retinal and is the key enzyme in the intestinal metabolism of carotenes to vitamin A. However, human and(More)
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