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Fleshy fruits are classically divided into climacteric and nonclimacteric types. It has long been thought that the ripening of climacteric and nonclimacteric fruits is regulated by ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA), respectively. Here, we report that sucrose functions as a signal in the ripening of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), a nonclimacteric fruit.(More)
BACKGROUND Fingolimod has shown reductions in clinical and MRI disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We further assessed the efficacy and safety of fingolimod in such patients. METHODS We did this placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 3 study predominantly in the USA (101 of 117 centres). Using a computer-generated(More)
The intensity of the root-sourced abscisic acid (ABA) signal has long been thought to decrease along its long-distance transport pathway, and hence the shoot responses to the ABA signal would be expected to become less sensitive with the increase in plant height. It is reported here that there is a significant modification of the ABA signal intensity in its(More)
Coordinated Multiple Point (CoMP) transmission is considered as one of candidate technologies for LTE-Advanced. CoMP improves average cell-edge user throughput as well as cell throughput and ensures the fairness of all uses. There are two categories in CoMP, Joint Processing (JP) and Coordinated Scheduling/Beam forming(CS/CB). In this paper, a novel(More)
Whereas the regulatory mechanisms that direct fruit ripening have been studied extensively, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying this process, especially for nonclimacteric fruits. In this study, we demonstrated that a SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, designated as FaSnRK2.6, is a negative regulator of fruit development(More)
BACKGROUND No treatments have been approved for primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Fingolimod, an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator, is effective in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis, but has not been assessed in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. We assessed the safety and efficacy of fingolimod in patients with primary progressive(More)
Stomatal movement results in large and repetitive changes in cell volume and consequently surface area. While endocytosis has been extensively studied and is thought to be a major mechanism for accommodating the volume changes as evidenced mainly by fluorescent labelling and confocal imaging, studies at the ultrastructural level in intact guard cells of(More)
Studies have shown that alcohol could impair automatic pre-attentive change detection. However, several earlier studies which investigated alcohol-induced effects on single auditory feature independently were different from each other on the results. Meanwhile, only few auditory features have been investigated yet. Therefore, it is meaningful to investigate(More)
Butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fed-batch fermentation using permeating-heating-gas was determined in this study. Fermentation was performed with Clostridium acetobutylicum B3 in a fibrous bed bioreactor and permeating-heating-gas stripping was used to eliminate substrate and product inhibition, which normally restrict ABE production and(More)
The objective of this study was to improve butanol yield and productivity by redox modulation and immobilization of Clostridium acetobutylicum B3 cells. Stoichiometric network analysis revealed that NAD(P)H that had escaped from the fermentation as H2 limited the butanol yield and led to the accumulation of oxidation byproducts, e.g., acetone. Methyl(More)