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BACKGROUND Fingolimod has shown reductions in clinical and MRI disease activity in patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis. We further assessed the efficacy and safety of fingolimod in such patients. METHODS We did this placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 3 study predominantly in the USA (101 of 117 centres). Using a computer-generated(More)
Fleshy fruits are classically divided into climacteric and nonclimacteric types. It has long been thought that the ripening of climacteric and nonclimacteric fruits is regulated by ethylene and abscisic acid (ABA), respectively. Here, we report that sucrose functions as a signal in the ripening of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa), a nonclimacteric fruit.(More)
BACKGROUND No treatments have been approved for primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Fingolimod, an oral sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor modulator, is effective in relapse-onset multiple sclerosis, but has not been assessed in primary progressive multiple sclerosis. We assessed the safety and efficacy of fingolimod in patients with primary progressive(More)
Butanol recovery from acetone-butanol-ethanol (ABE) fed-batch fermentation using permeating-heating-gas was determined in this study. Fermentation was performed with Clostridium acetobutylicum B3 in a fibrous bed bioreactor and permeating-heating-gas stripping was used to eliminate substrate and product inhibition, which normally restrict ABE production and(More)
In this work, a fibrous bed bioreactor with high specific surface area and good adsorption efficacy for S. cerevisiae cells was used as the immobilization matrix in the production of ethanol. In batch fermentation, an optimal ethanol concentration of 91.36 g/l and productivity of 4.57 g l(-1) h(-1) were obtained at an initial sugar concentration of 200 g/l.(More)
Coordinated Multiple Point (CoMP) transmission is considered as one of candidate technologies for LTE-Advanced. CoMP improves average cell-edge user throughput as well as cell throughput and ensures the fairness of all uses. There are two categories in CoMP, Joint Processing (JP) and Coordinated Scheduling/Beam forming(CS/CB). In this paper, a novel(More)
Whereas the regulatory mechanisms that direct fruit ripening have been studied extensively, little is known about the signaling mechanisms underlying this process, especially for nonclimacteric fruits. In this study, we demonstrated that a SUCROSE NONFERMENTING1-RELATED PROTEIN KINASE2, designated as FaSnRK2.6, is a negative regulator of fruit development(More)
BACKGROUND Pulmonary hypertension is a group of diseases comprising vascular constriction and by obstructive changes of the pulmonary vasculature. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, e.g., sildenafil, can alleviate vascular remodeling in the monocrotaline pulmonary hypertension model in rats, and inhibit the proliferation of pulmonary vascular smooth(More)
Pulmonary hypertension is a group of diseases comprising vascular constriction and obstructive changes of the pulmonary vasculature. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, for example, sildenafil, can alleviate vascular remodeling in the monocrotaline pulmonary hypertension model in rats. We investigate the mechanisms of sildenafil on the pulmonary vascular(More)
In this paper, a new method of timing synchronization was proposed for 802.16e OFDMA downlink which consists of coarse frame detection and fine timing synchronization. In coarse frame detection a method had been proposed, which reduced the uncertainty existing in conventional method. For fine timing synchronization, another method was represented to improve(More)