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Resveratrol may protect against metabolic disease through activating SIRT1 deacetylase. Because we have recently defined AMPK activation as a key mechanism for the beneficial effects of polyphenols on hepatic lipid accumulation, hyperlipidemia, and atherosclerosis in type 1 diabetic mice, we hypothesize that polyphenol-activated SIRT1 acts upstream of AMPK(More)
AMPK has emerged as a critical mechanism for salutary effects of polyphenols on lipid metabolic disorders in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Here we demonstrate that AMPK interacts with and directly phosphorylates sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBP-1c and -2). Ser372 phosphorylation of SREBP-1c by AMPK is necessary for inhibition of proteolytic(More)
Because polyphenols may have beneficial effects on dyslipidemia, which accelerates atherosclerosis in diabetes, we examined the effect of polyphenols on hepatocellular AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) activity and lipid levels, as well as hyperlipidemia and atherogenesis in type 1 diabetic LDL receptor-deficient mice (DMLDLR(-/-)). In HepG2 hepatocytes,(More)
Nitration of protein tyrosine residues (nY) is a marker of oxidative stress and may alter the biological activity of the modified proteins. The aim of this study was to develop antibodies toward site-specific nY-modified proteins and to use histochemistry and immunoblotting to demonstrate protein nitration in tissues. Affinity-purified polyclonal antibodies(More)
Although reactive oxygen species (ROS) appear to play a central role in mediating myocardial hypertrophy in response to hemodynamic overload, little is known about the molecular targets by which ROS regulate growth signaling. In cardiac myocytes, we tested the hypothesis that mechanical strain causes cellular hypertrophy via ROS-dependent post-translational(More)
Angiotensin II (AII) increases production of reactive oxygen species from NAD(P)H oxidase, a response that contributes to vascular hypertrophy. Here we show in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells that S-glutathiolation of the redox-sensitive Cys(118) on the small GTPase, Ras, plays a critical role in AII-induced hypertrophic signaling. AII simultaneously(More)
Hypertension caused by angiotensin II is characterized by an increase in tissue oxidant stress as evidenced by increased quantities of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. Manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) is a key mitochondrial antioxidant enzyme that is inactivated in conditions of oxidant stress by reacting with peroxynitrite to form(More)
BACKGROUND Aberrantly elevated sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP), the lipogenic transcription factor, contributes to the development of fatty liver and insulin resistance in animals. Our recent studies have discovered that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates SREBP at Ser-327 and inhibits its activity, represses SREBP-dependent(More)
Immunoglobulin light chain (LC) amyloidosis (AL) results from overproduction of circulating amyloidogenic LC proteins and subsequent amyloid fibril deposition in organs. Mortality in AL amyloidosis patients is highly associated with a rapidly progressive AL cardiomyopathy, marked by profound impairment of diastolic and systolic cardiac function and(More)
The sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) is redox-regulated by posttranslational thiol modifications of cysteine-674 to regulate smooth muscle relaxation and migration. To detect oxidation of cysteine-674 that irreversibly prevents redox regulation, a polyclonal, sequence-specific antibody was developed toward a peptide containing cysteine-674(More)