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In yeast, histone H2B monoubiquitination is a cotranscriptional event regulating histone H3 methylation at lysines 4 and 79. However, mammalian H2B monoubiquitination remains poorly understood. We report that in humans, the 600 kDa RNF20/40 complex is the E3 ligase and UbcH6 is the ubiquitin E2-conjugating enzyme for H2B-Lys120 monoubiquitination. RNF20 and(More)
Over the past years, a large number of histone posttranslational modifications have been described, some of which function to attain a repressed chromatin structure, while others facilitate activation by allowing access of regulators to DNA. Histone H2B monoubiquitination is a mark associated with transcriptional activity. Using a highly reconstituted(More)
The yeast PAF (yPAF) complex interacts with RNA polymerase II and coordinates the setting of histone marks associated with active transcription. We report the isolation and functional characterization of the human PAF (hPAF) complex. hPAF shares four subunits with yPAF (hCtr9, hPaf1, hLeo1, and hCdc73), but contains a novel higher eukaryotic-specific(More)
The Paf1 complex in yeast has been reported to influence a multitude of steps in gene expression through interactions with RNA polymerase II (Pol II) and chromatin-modifying complexes; however, it is unclear which of these many activities are primary functions of Paf1 and are conserved in metazoans. We have identified and characterized the Drosophila(More)
Increasing evidence shows that oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). In recent years, bilirubin has been demonstrated to be a potent antioxidant in vitro. In this study, we administered bilirubin to rats with acute and chronic EAE.(More)
OBJECTIVE The onset of neurological signs in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is tightly associated with infiltration and reactivation of T cells in the central nervous system. The anatomic localization of the initial T cell-antigen-presenting cell (APC) interactions leading to reactivation of T cells in the central nervous system is, however,(More)
Polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2)-mediated histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) methylation is vital for Polycomb gene silencing, a classic epigenetic phenomenon that maintains transcriptional silencing throughout cell divisions. We report that PRC2 activity is regulated by the density of its substrate nucleosome arrays. Neighboring nucleosomes activate the PRC2(More)
H3K27 methylation mediated by the histone methyltransferase complex PRC2 is critical for transcriptional regulation, Polycomb silencing, Drosophila segmentation, mammalian X chromosome inactivation, and cancer. PRC2-mediated H3K27 methylation can spread along the chromatin and propagate the repressive chromatin environment; thus, chromatin components that(More)
Bitter taste-sensing G protein-coupled receptors (type 2 taste receptors [T2Rs]) are expressed in taste receptor cells of the tongue, where they play an important role in limiting ingestion of bitter-tasting, potentially toxic compounds. T2Rs are also expressed in gut-derived enteroendocrine cells, where they have also been hypothesized to play a role in(More)
Interleukin 9 (IL-9) is a pleiotropic cytokine that can regulate autoimmune responses by enhancing regulatory CD4(+)FoxP3(+) T regulatory (Treg) cell survival and T helper 17 (Th17) cell proliferation. Here, we analyzed the costimulatory requirements for the induction of Th9 cells, and demonstrated that Notch pathway cooperated with TGF-β signaling to(More)