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BACKGROUND Hallervorden-Spatz syndrome is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by dystonia, parkinsonism, and iron accumulation in the brain. Many patients with this disease have mutations in the gene encoding pantothenate kinase 2 (PANK2); these patients are said to have pantothenate kinase-associated neurodegeneration. In this study, we compared(More)
Ad hoc and sensor networks are an important, emerging niche that is poorly supported by existing operating systems. In this paper, we argue that network-wide energy management is a primary concern in ad hoc networks, and that this functionality is best provided by a systems layer. We are currently designing and implementing a distributed, power-aware,(More)
Apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and AIF-homologous mitochondrion-associated inducer of death (AMID) are both mitochondrial flavoproteins that trigger caspase-independent apoptosis. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that these two proteins evolutionarily diverge back from their common prokaryote ancestor. Compared with AIF, the proapoptotic nature of AMID and(More)
Metal ions are essential as well as toxic to the cell. The mechanism of metal-induced toxicity is not well established. Here, for the first time we studied two essential nutritional elements, copper and manganese, for their apoptotic effects in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Although beneficial at subtoxic levels, we demonstrated that at moderately toxic(More)
Artemisinins, derived from the wormwood herb Artemisia annua, are the most potent antimalarial drugs currently available. Despite extensive research, the exact mode of action of artemisinins has not been established. Here we use yeast, Saccharamyces cerevisiae, to probe the core working mechanism of this class of antimalarial agents. We demonstrate that(More)
Histone modifications are major epigenetic factors regulating gene expression. They play important roles in maintaining stem cell pluripotency and in cancer pathogenesis. Different modifications may combine to form complex "histone codes." Recent high-throughput technologies, such as "ChIP-chip" and "ChIP-seq," have generated high-resolution maps for many(More)
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are under precise control of both intrinsic self-renewal gene regulatory network and extrinsic growth factor-triggered signaling cascades. How external signaling pathways connect to core self-renewal transcriptional circuits is largely unknown. To probe this, we chose BMP signaling, which is previously recognized as a master(More)
Dietary interventions are effective ways to extend or shorten lifespan. By examining midlife hepatic gene expressions in mice under different dietary conditions, which resulted in different lifespans and aging-related phenotypes, we were able to identify genes and pathways that modulate the aging process. We found that pathways transcriptionally correlated(More)
Chlamydia trachomatis and C. muridarum are human and mouse pathogens, respectively, which show high conservation of gene order and content. Both species contain a common 7.5-kb plasmid that is an important virulence factor. Recently described transformation systems have been used to characterize C. trachomatis L2 plasmid gene functions; however, similar(More)
Polycomb group (PcG) proteins are gene repressors that help to maintain cellular identity during development via chromatin remodeling. Fertilization-independent endosperm (FIE), a member of the PcG complex, operates extensively in plant development, but its role in rice has not been fully investigated to date. We report the isolation and characterization of(More)