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Since the successful launch of NASA's dedicated gamma-ray burst (GRB) mission, Swift, the study of cosmological GRBs has entered a new era. Here I review the rapid observational and theoretical progress in this dynamical research field during the first two-year of the Swift mission, focusing on how observational breakthroughs have revolutionized our(More)
Early-time X-ray observations of GRBs with the Swift satellite have revealed a more complicated phe-nomenology than was known before. In particular, the presence of flaring activity on a wide range of time scales probably requires late-time energy production within the GRB engine. Since the flaring activity is observed in both long and short GRBs, its(More)
ZnO, aside from TiO2, has been considered as a promising material for purification and disinfection of water and air, and remediation of hazardous waste, owing to its high activity, environment-friendly feature and lower cost. However, their poor visible light utilization greatly limited their practical applications. Herein, we demonstrate the fabrication(More)
To meet the challenge of developing a comprehensive weather and climate prediction model which can give realistic scenarios for many time scales, more computer power than is currently available will be needed. One possibility for alleviating this shortcoming is to increase the integration timestep. We propose and test several methods which may prove useful.(More)
In recent years, hyperspectral remote sensing has stepped into a new stage in China. There are several advanced hyperspectral imaging systems developed in Chinese. Especially the Chinese Academy of Sciences(CAS) has been playing a very important role in such High-technology developing activities. Pushbroom Hyperspectral Imager (PHI) and Operative Modular(More)
One of the major achievements of Swift is the discovery of the erratic X-ray flares harboring nearly half of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs), both for long-duration and short-duration categories, and both for traditional hard GRBs and soft X-ray flashes (XRFs). Here I review the arguments in support of the suggestion that they are powered by reactivation of the GRB(More)
We have calculated the opacities and secondary production mechanisms of high energy photons arising in gamma-ray burst internal shocks, using exact cross-sections for the relevant processes. We find that for reasonable choices of parameters, photons in the range of 10's to 100's of GeV may be emitted in the prompt phase. Photons above this range are subject(More)
In this thesis two contributions are made to the area of mathematical finance. First, in order to explain the non-trivial skewness and kurtosis that is observed in the time-series data of constant maturity swap (CMS) rates, we employ the pure jump Lévy processes, i.e. in particular Variance Gamma process, to model the variation of unobservable economic(More)
This paper proposes a new method for estimating seismic wavelets. Suppose a seismic wavelet can be modeled by a formula with three free parameters (scale, frequency and phase). We can transform the estimation of the wavelet into determining these three parameters. The phase of the wavelet is estimated by constant-phase rotation to the seismic signal, while(More)