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An examination of 513 known pre-miRNAs and 237 other RNAs (tRNA, rRNA, and mRNA) revealed that miRNAs were significantly different from other RNAs (p < 0.001). miRNA genes were less conserved than other RNA genes, although their mature miRNA sequences were highly conserved. The A+U content of pre-miRNAs was higher than non-coding RNA (p < 0.001), but lower(More)
Proper synaptic development is critical for establishing all aspects of neural function including learning, memory, and locomotion. Here, we describe the phenotypic consequences of mutations in the wishful thinking (wit) gene, the Drosophila homolog of the vertebrate BMP type II receptor. Mutations in wit result in pharate lethality that can be rescued by(More)
Clathrin-mediated endocytosis is thought to involve the activity of the clathrin adaptor protein AP180. However, the role of this protein in endocytosis in vivo remains unknown. Here, we show that a mutation that eliminates an AP180 homolog (LAP) in Drosophila severely impairs the efficiency of synaptic vesicle endocytosis and alters the normal localization(More)
Plant basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors play essential roles in abiotic stress tolerance. However, most bHLHs have not been functionally characterized. Here, we characterized the functional role of a bHLH transcription factor from Arabidopsis, AtbHLH112, in response to abiotic stress. AtbHLH112 is a nuclear-localized protein, and its(More)
The most common form of human autosomal dominant hereditary spastic paraplegia (AD-HSP) is caused by mutations in the SPG4 (spastin) gene, which encodes an AAA ATPase closely related in sequence to the microtubule-severing protein Katanin. Patients with AD-HSP exhibit degeneration of the distal regions of the longest axons in the spinal cord.(More)
Wide-area transfer of large data sets is still a big challenge despite the deployment of high-bandwidth networks with speeds reaching 100 Gbps. Most users fail to obtain even a fraction of theoretical speeds promised by these networks. Effective usage of the available network capacity has become increasingly important for wide-area data movement. We have(More)
Amidated neuropeptides of the FMRFamide class regulate numerous physiological processes including synaptic efficacy at the Drosophila neuromuscular junction (NMJ). We demonstrate here that mutations in wishful thinking (wit) a gene encoding a Drosophila Bmp type 2 receptor that is required for proper neurotransmitter release at the neuromuscular junction,(More)
The formation of synaptic connections with target cells and maintenance of axons are highly regulated and crucial for neuronal function. The atypical cadherin and G-protein-coupled receptor Flamingo and its orthologs in amphibians and mammals have been shown to regulate cell polarity, dendritic and axonal growth, and neural tube closure. However, the role(More)
To gain a better understanding of the critical role of mitochondria in cell function, we have compiled an extensive catalogue of the mitochondrial proteome using highly purified mitochondria from normal human heart tissue. Sucrose gradient centrifugation was employed to partially resolve protein complexes whose individual protein components were separated(More)
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease that leads to loss of motor function and early death. About 5% of cases are inherited, with the majority of identified linkages in the gene encoding copper, zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1). Strong evidence indicates that the SOD1 mutations confer dominant toxicity on the protein. To provide new(More)