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Bone morphogenetic protein 4 (Bmp4) is essential for lung development. To define the intracellular signaling mechanisms by which Bmp4 regulates lung development, BMP-specific Smad1 or Smad5 was selectively knocked out in fetal mouse lung epithelial cells. Abrogation of lung epithelial-specific Smad1, but not Smad5, resulted in retardation of lung branching(More)
The aim of the present study was to compare the changes in the levels of 27 aqueous humor cytokines between diabetic patients with macular edema (ME) and diabetic patients without ME. Undiluted aqueous humor samples were obtained from 68 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients without ME and 56 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients with ME. The concentrations(More)
Hypoxia inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) initiates key cellular and tissue responses to physiological and pathological hypoxia. Evidence from in vitro and structural analyses supports a critical role for Cited2 in down-regulating HIF-1-mediated transcription by competing for binding with oxygen-sensitive HIF-1alpha to transcriptional co-activators CBP/p300. We(More)
TGF-beta plays an important role in the induction of Treg and maintenance of immunologic tolerance, but whether other members of TGF-beta superfamily act together or independently to achieve this effect is poorly understood. Although others have reported that the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP) and TGF-beta have similar effects on the development of(More)
This study aims to ascertain whether cytokines in the aqueous humor can predict macular edema (ME) in diabetic patients following uncomplicated phacoemulsification cataract surgery. Undiluted aqueous humor samples were obtained from 136 consecutive type 2 diabetic patients who underwent cataract surgery. The concentrations of 27 cytokines were measured in(More)
3'-end cleavage of histone pre-mRNAs is catalyzed by CPSF-73 and requires the interaction of two U7 snRNP-associated proteins, FLASH and Lsm11. Here, by using scanning mutagenesis we identify critical residues in human FLASH and Lsm11 that are involved in the interaction between these two proteins. We also demonstrate that mutations in the region of FLASH(More)
PURPOSE To compare the changes in the levels of 27 aqueous humor cytokines between nondiabetic controls and patients with type 2 diabetes and to ascertain the association of these cytokines with diabetic retinopathy (DR). METHODS Undiluted aqueous humor samples were obtained from 102 nondiabetic patients (102 eyes) and 136 consecutive diabetic patients(More)
Recent studies demonstrate that the neuropeptide VGF (nonacronymic)-derived peptide is regulated in the hippocampus by antidepressant therapies. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB), cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) signaling, and monoamine transmitter pathways mediate the behavioral effects of(More)
It is well accepted that TGF-β signaling has critical functional roles in lung development, injury, and repair. We showed previously that null mutation of Smad3, a critical node in the TGF-β pathway, protects mice against fibrosis induced by bleomycin. However, more recently we noticed that abnormal alveolarization also occurs in Smad3-deficient mice and(More)
Pancreatic cancer is one of the most lethal human cancers, and radiotherapy is often implemented for locally advanced pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Tumor cell repopulation is a major challenge in treating cancers after radiotherapy. In order to address the problem of tumor repopulation, our previous studies have demonstrated that dying cells stimulate(More)