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We describe the development, current features, and some directions for future development of the Amber package of computer programs. This package evolved from a program that was constructed in the late 1970s to do Assisted Model Building with Energy Refinement, and now contains a group of programs embodying a number of powerful tools of modern computational(More)
— In this paper, we address the problem of efficiently streaming a set of heterogeneous videos from a remote server through a proxy to multiple asynchronous clients so that they can experience playback with low startup delays. We develop a technique to analytically determine the optimal proxy prefix cache allocation to the videos that minimizes the(More)
The Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway governs cell growth, proliferation, and apoptosis by controlling key regulatory genes that execute these processes; however, the transcription factor of the pathway has remained elusive. Here we provide evidence that the TEAD/TEF family transcription factor Scalloped (Sd) acts together with the coactivator Yorkie (Yki) to(More)
The Hedgehog (Hh) family of secreted proteins governs cell growth and patterning in animal development. The Hh signal is transduced by the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo); however, the mechanism by which Smo is regulated remains largely unknown. Here we show that protein kinase A (PKA) and casein kinase I (CKI) regulate Smo cell-surface(More)
Hedgehog (Hh) proteins control animal development by regulating the Gli/Ci family of transcription factors. In Drosophila, Hh counteracts phosphorylation by PKA, GSK3, and CKI to prevent Cubitus interruptus (Ci) processing through unknown mechanisms. Here, we show that these kinases physically interact with the kinesin-like protein Costal2 (Cos2) to control(More)
TCP is widely used in commercial media streaming systems, with recent measurement studies indicating that a significant fraction of Internet streaming media is currently delivered over HTTP/TCP. These observations motivate us to develop analytic performance models to systematically investigate the performance of TCP for both live and stored media streaming.(More)
With the increasing popularity of cloud computing, huge amount of documents are outsourced to the cloud for reduced management cost and ease of access. Although encryption helps protecting user data confidentiality, it leaves the well-functioning yet practically-efficient secure search functions over encrypted data a challenging problem. In this paper, we(More)
Intestinal stem cells (ISCs) in the Drosophila adult midgut are essential for maintaining tissue homeostasis and replenishing lost cells in response to tissue damage. Here we demonstrate that the Hippo (Hpo) signaling pathway, an evolutionarily conserved pathway implicated in organ size control and tumorigenesis, plays an essential role in regulating ISC(More)
Hedgehog transduces signal by promoting cell surface expression of the seven-transmembrane protein Smoothened (Smo) in Drosophila, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we demonstrate that Smo is downregulated by ubiquitin-mediated endocytosis and degradation, and that Hh increases Smo cell surface expression by inhibiting its ubiquitination.(More)
Enabling keyword search directly over encrypted data is a desirable technique for effective utilization of encrypted data outsourced to the cloud. Existing solutions provide multi-keyword exact search that does not tolerate keyword spelling error, or single keyword fuzzy search that tolerates typos to certain extent. The current fuzzy search schemes rely on(More)