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Direct-current (DC) electric fields are present in all developing and regenerating animal tissues, yet their existence and potential impact on tissue repair and development are largely ignored. This is primarily due to ignorance of the phenomenon by most researchers, some technically poor early studies of the effects of applied fields on cells, and(More)
Wound healing is essential for maintaining the integrity of multicellular organisms. In every species studied, disruption of an epithelial layer instantaneously generates endogenous electric fields, which have been proposed to be important in wound healing. The identity of signalling pathways that guide both cell migration to electric cues and(More)
It has long been known that cells can be induced to migrate by the application of small d.c. electric fields (EFs), a phenomenon referred to as galvanotaxis. We recently reported some significant effects of electric signals of physiological strength in guiding cell migration and wound healing. We present here protocols to apply an EF to cells or tissues(More)
Cells undergo a variety of physiological processes, including division, migration and differentiation, under the influence of endogenous electrical cues, which are generated physiologically and pathologically in the extracellular and sometimes intracellular spaces. These signals are transduced to regulate cell behaviours profoundly, both in vitro and in(More)
In response to G2 DNA damage, the p53 pathway is activated to lead to cell-cycle arrest, but how p53 is eliminated during the subsequent recovery process is poorly understood. It has been established that Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) controls G2 DNA-damage recovery. However, whether Plk1 activity contributes to p53 inactivation during this process is unknown.(More)
Nuclear envelope breakdown (NEBD) is an essential step during the G2/M transition in higher eukaryotic cells. Increasing evidence supports the notion that both microtubules and microtubule-associated motor proteins are critical regulators of NEBD. Although it has been described that p150(Glued), the major component of the dynein/dynactin complex, localizes(More)
Neural progenitor cell (NPC) replacement therapy is a promising treatment for neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). It requires a controlled directional migration and integration of NPCs, for example dopaminergic (DA) progenitor cells, into the damaged host brain tissue. There is, however, only limited understanding of how to(More)
We report here a novel multiplexed DNA analysis system consisting of 20 Alu markers and Amelogenin for analysis of highly degraded forensic biological samples. The key to the success of the system in obtaining results from degraded samples is the primer design yielding small amplicon size (60-125bp) for all 20 markers. The markers included in the InnoTyper®(More)
Although gemcitabine is the standard chemotherapeutic drug for treatment of pancreatic cancer, almost all patients eventually develop resistance to this agent. Previous studies identified Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) as the mediator of gemcitabine resistance, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we show that Plk1 phosphorylation of Orc2(More)
Soil is one of the most important carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and plays a crucial role in ecosystem C and N cycling. Climate change profoundly affects soil C and N storage via changing C and N inputs and outputs. However, the influences of climate warming and changing precipitation regime on labile and recalcitrant fractions of soil organic C and N(More)