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Direct-current (DC) electric fields are present in all developing and regenerating animal tissues, yet their existence and potential impact on tissue repair and development are largely ignored. This is primarily due to ignorance of the phenomenon by most researchers, some technically poor early studies of the effects of applied fields on cells, and(More)
Wound healing is essential for maintaining the integrity of multicellular organisms. In every species studied, disruption of an epithelial layer instantaneously generates endogenous electric fields, which have been proposed to be important in wound healing. The identity of signalling pathways that guide both cell migration to electric cues and(More)
Cells undergo a variety of physiological processes, including division, migration and differentiation, under the influence of endogenous electrical cues, which are generated physiologically and pathologically in the extracellular and sometimes intracellular spaces. These signals are transduced to regulate cell behaviours profoundly, both in vitro and in(More)
Soil is one of the most important carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) pools and plays a crucial role in ecosystem C and N cycling. Climate change profoundly affects soil C and N storage via changing C and N inputs and outputs. However, the influences of climate warming and changing precipitation regime on labile and recalcitrant fractions of soil organic C and N(More)
Neural progenitor cell (NPC) replacement therapy is a promising treatment for neurodegenerative disorders including Parkinson's disease (PD). It requires a controlled directional migration and integration of NPCs, for example dopaminergic (DA) progenitor cells, into the damaged host brain tissue. There is, however, only limited understanding of how to(More)
Although gemcitabine is the standard chemotherapeutic drug for treatment of pancreatic cancer, almost all patients eventually develop resistance to this agent. Previous studies identified Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) as the mediator of gemcitabine resistance, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. In this study, we show that Plk1 phosphorylation of Orc2(More)
Published data on the association between miR-196a2 rs11614913 polymorphism and risk of gastrointestinal (GI) cancers are inconsistent among studies. To clarify the association, we performed a comprehensive literature search and a meta-analysis. We searched multiple databases to identify genetic association studies investigating the effect of miR-196a2(More)
How autophagy, an evolutionarily conserved intracellular catabolic system for bulk degradation, selectively degrades protein aggregates is poorly understood. Here, we show that several maternally derived germ P granule components are selectively eliminated by autophagy in somatic cells during C. elegans embryogenesis. The activity of sepa-1 is required for(More)
Hydrocephalus is a common and potentially devastating birth defect affecting the CNS, and its relationship with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is unknown. We have expressed 2, 4, or 6 copies of a GPCR--the human PAC1 receptor with a 130-kb transgene in the mouse nervous system in a pattern closely resembling that of the endogenous gene. Consistent with(More)
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and fatal brain disease, but the pathogenesis of AD is still not understood. Aberrant cell-cycle re-entry of neuronal cells is emerging as a potential pathological mechanism in AD. Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) is an established regulator of many cell cycle-related events. Interestingly, Plk1 is present in susceptible(More)