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Direct-current (DC) electric fields are present in all developing and regenerating animal tissues, yet their existence and potential impact on tissue repair and development are largely ignored. This is primarily due to ignorance of the phenomenon by most researchers, some technically poor early studies of the effects of applied fields on cells, and(More)
Wound healing is essential for maintaining the integrity of multicellular organisms. In every species studied, disruption of an epithelial layer instantaneously generates endogenous electric fields, which have been proposed to be important in wound healing. The identity of signalling pathways that guide both cell migration to electric cues and(More)
Cells undergo a variety of physiological processes, including division, migration and differentiation, under the influence of endogenous electrical cues, which are generated physiologically and pathologically in the extracellular and sometimes intracellular spaces. These signals are transduced to regulate cell behaviours profoundly, both in vitro and in(More)
In response to G2 DNA damage, the p53 pathway is activated to lead to cell-cycle arrest, but how p53 is eliminated during the subsequent recovery process is poorly understood. It has been established that Polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) controls G2 DNA-damage recovery. However, whether Plk1 activity contributes to p53 inactivation during this process is unknown.(More)
Correct guidance of the migration of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is essential for the development and repair of the central nervous system (CNS). Electric field (EF)-guided migration, electrotaxis, has been observed in many cell types. We report here that, in applied EFs of physiological magnitude, embryonic and adult NPCs show marked electrotaxis, which(More)
Hydrocephalus is a common and potentially devastating birth defect affecting the CNS, and its relationship with G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) is unknown. We have expressed 2, 4, or 6 copies of a GPCR--the human PAC1 receptor with a 130-kb transgene in the mouse nervous system in a pattern closely resembling that of the endogenous gene. Consistent with(More)
BACKGROUND Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress) is generally activated in solid tumors and results in tumor cell anti-apoptosis and drug resistance. Paeonol (Pae, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxyacetophenone), is a natural product extracted from the root of Paeonia Suffruticosa Andrew. Although Pae displays anti-neoplastic activity and increases the efficacy of(More)
It has long been known that cells can be induced to migrate by the application of small d.c. electric fields (EFs), a phenomenon referred to as galvanotaxis. We recently reported some significant effects of electric signals of physiological strength in guiding cell migration and wound healing. We present here protocols to apply an EF to cells or tissues(More)
Controlling cell division is fundamental. One environmental cue that exerts profound control over both the orientation and frequency of cell division in vivo is a naturally occurring, wound-induced electric field (EF). Wounds in rat corneas generate endogenous EFs in the plane of the epithelial sheet because the transcorneal potential difference (TCPD; +40(More)
Endogenous electric currents generated instantly at skin wounds direct migration of epithelial cells and are likely to be important in wound healing. Migration of fibroblasts is critical in wound healing. It remains unclear how wound electric fields guide migration of dermal fibroblasts. We report here that mouse skin wounds generated endogenous electric(More)