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This study compares five genera of free-living amoebae (FLA) hosts by Legionella spp. in the fixed and floating biofilm samples from spring environments. Detection rate of Legionella spp. was 26.9% for the floating biofilms and 3.1% for the fixed biofilms. Acanthamoeba spp., Hartmanella vermiformis, and Naegleria spp. were more frequently detected in(More)
Giardia and Cryptosporidium have emerged as waterborne pathogens of concern. Thirty-one water samples were collected from nine potable water treatment plants in Taiwan and investigated for the presence of Giardia cysts and Cryptosporidium oocysts. The immunofluorescence assay was used for the simultaneous detection of cysts and oocysts. The frequency of(More)
The performance of six concentration method combinations and two quantitative analysis techniques were evaluated in terms of enterovirus recovery efficiencies by adjusting the pH and salt concentration of water samples. Of the six concentration method combinations, adsorption on nitrocellulose membranes followed by an acid rinse elution consistently gave(More)
Normal human keratinocytes can be grown in serum-free medium, and the integrated control of their proliferation and differentiation can be modulated experimentally. The growth of cultured human keratinocytes can also be specifically arrested at either reversible or irreversible growth arrest states. Reversible growth arrest is induced by culture in medium(More)
Legionella were detected with the direct DNA extraction method, Legionella culture method, and free-living amoebae (FLA) culture method from weak alkaline carbonate spring water in Taiwan. Moreover, we also investigated the existence of Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella, and Naegleria, ubiquitous FLA in aquatic environments, to identify the correlations between(More)
Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella, and Naegleria are free-living amoebae, ubiquitous in aquatic environments. Several species within these genera are recognized as potential human pathogens. These free-living amoebae may facilitate the proliferation of their parasitical bacteria, such as Legionella. In this study, we identified Acanthamoeba, Hartmannella,(More)
In the study, 52 spring water samples were collected from three hot spring recreation areas in northern Taiwan and Acanthamoebae were isolated from 11 samples (21.2%) on two hot spring recreation areas and mainly present in the hot spring water, hot tubs and wastewater. The most frequently identified Acanthamoeba genotype was T15, followed by T6, and then(More)
This study evaluated the presence of Acanthamoeba species in the Puzih River watershed, which features typical subtropical monsoon climate and is located just above the Tropic of Cancer in Taiwan. The relationship between the seasonal and geographical distributions of Acanthamoeba species in this rivershed was also investigated. Acanthamoeba species were(More)
In this study, a quantitative real-time PCR was developed to detect and quantify Acanthamoeba spp. in various environmental water samples. The water samples were taken from watershed, water treatment plant, and three thermal spring recreation areas. The overall detection rate was 14.2 % (25/176) for Acanthamoeba spp. The percentages of samples containing(More)
Naegleria is a free-living amoebae existing in soil and aquatic environments. Within the genus Naegleria, N. fowleri is most recognized as potential human pathogen causing primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAM). Furthermore, the Naegleria spp. can serve as vehicles for facultative pathogens, such as Legionella. In this study, we identified Naegleria and(More)