Bing Liu

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Machilus is a large (c. 100 sp.) genus of trees in the family Lauraceae, distributed in tropical and subtropical East Asia. Both molecular species identification and phylogenetic studies of this morphologically uniform genus have been constrained by insufficient variable sites among frequently used biomarkers. To better understand the mutation patterns in(More)
There has been very limited research on water use efficiency for soil conservation (WUE-SC) in typical water scarce regions such as the lower Heihe River Basin, where there is serious wind erosion and the soil conservation service plays a key role in guaranteeing the ecological safety of Northern China. The soil conservation service, which was represented(More)
When a crystal melts into a liquid both long-ranged positional and orientational order are lost, and long-time translational and rotational self-diffusion appear. Sometimes, these properties do not change at once, but in stages, allowing states of matter such as liquid crystals or plastic crystals with unique combinations of properties. Plastic(More)
a r t i c l e i n f o Keywords: CO 2 Shadow price Directional distance function Quadratic function China Thermal power enterprise This paper estimates the shadow price of CO 2 and explores its determinants for thermal power enterprises in China. Using a parametric quadratic directional distance function, we evaluate the inefficiency and shadow price of CO 2(More)
Open fires play a significant role in atmospheric pollution and climatic change. This work aims to develop an emission inventory for nonagricultural open fires in Asia using the newly released MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) burned area product (MCD45A1), as the MODIS sensor cannot efficiently detect field crop residue burning.(More)
Black truffle (Tuber melanosporum) cultivation is a promising agro-forestry alternative for Mediterranean rural areas, but adequate weed control at seedling establishment still remains a challenge in black truffle plantations. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effects of several weed control strategies on early development of Quercus ilex seedlings(More)
—Computed tomography (CT) detector requires quantizing the wide dynamic range (WDR) photocurrent with high speed. Existing CMOS CT detectors are limited by their low linearity. They also need high-resolution external analog-to-digital converters (ADC) to quantize the WDR. In this work, a novel synchronous partial quantization technique is developed to(More)