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We present rna22, a method for identifying microRNA binding sites and their corresponding heteroduplexes. Rna22 does not rely upon cross-species conservation, is resilient to noise, and, unlike previous methods, it first finds putative microRNA binding sites in the sequence of interest, then identifies the targeting microRNA. Computationally, we show that(More)
The ability to derive a whole-genome map of transcription-factor binding sites (TFBS) is crucial for elucidating gene regulatory networks. Herein, we describe a robust approach that couples chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) with the paired-end ditag (PET) sequencing strategy for unbiased and precise global localization of TFBS. We have applied this(More)
Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) are pluripotent cells that can either self-renew or differentiate into many cell types. Oct4 and Sox2 are transcription factors essential to the pluripotent and self-renewing phenotypes of ESCs. Both factors are upstream in the hierarchy of the transcription regulatory network and are partners in regulating several ESC-specific(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short RNAs that direct messenger RNA degradation or disrupt mRNA translation in a sequence-dependent manner. For more than a decade, attempts to study the interaction of miRNAs with their targets were confined to the 3' untranslated regions of mRNAs, fuelling an underlying assumption that these regions are the principal recipients of(More)
The de novo generation of Foxp3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells in the peripheral immune compartment and the differentiation of Th17 cells both require TGF-beta, and IL-6 and IL-21 are switch factors that drive the development of Th17 cells at the expense of Treg cell generation. The major vitamin A metabolite all-trans retinoic acid (RA) not only enforces the(More)
The derivation of human ES cells (hESCs) from human blastocysts represents one of the milestones in stem cell biology. The full potential of hESCs in research and clinical applications requires a detailed understanding of the genetic network that governs the unique properties of hESCs. Here, we report a genome-wide RNA interference screen to identify genes(More)
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of small noncoding RNAs that regulate gene expression at the posttranscriptional level. Research on miRNAs has highlighted their importance in neural development, but the specific functions of neurally enriched miRNAs remain poorly understood. We report here the expression profile of miRNAs during neuronal differentiation in(More)
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells can be obtained by the introduction of defined factors into somatic cells. The combination of Oct4 (also known as Pou5f1), Sox2 and Klf4 (which we term OSK) constitutes the minimal requirement for generating iPS cells from mouse embryonic fibroblasts. These cells are thought to resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs) on the(More)
The extent of lung regeneration following catastrophic damage and the potential role of adult stem cells in such a process remains obscure. Sublethal infection of mice with an H1N1 influenza virus related to that of the 1918 pandemic triggers massive airway damage followed by apparent regeneration. We show here that p63-expressing stem cells in the(More)