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Electrophysiological studies have shown the enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats, which can be observed up to 7 weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colon inflammation, suggesting a mechanism for learning and triggering of pain memories in the ACC neuronal(More)
Studies of both humans and animals suggest that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for processing pain perception. We identified that perigenul ACC (pACC) sensitization and enhanced visceral pain in a visceral hypersensitive rat in previous studies. Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Teasing apart the mechanisms that control the(More)
Prenatal morphine exposure induces neurobiological changes, including deficits in learning and memory, in juvenile rat offspring. However the effects of this exposure on hippocampal plasticity, which is critical for learning and memory processes, are not well understood. The present study investigates the alterations of spatial memory and in vivo(More)
Within a biopsychosocial model of pain, pain is seen as a conscious experience modulated by mental, emotional and sensory mechanisms. Recently, using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective(More)
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) cause long-term disturbance of cerebral functions. The primary mechanism of neurotoxicity is related to their interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels. However, until now, the neurological targets for CTXs in the brain of intact animals have not been described. In our study, 1 day following oral exposure to 0.26 ng/g of Pacific(More)
The NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is up-regulated in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats induced by colonic anaphylaxis. It plays a critical role in modulation of ACC sensitization and visceral pain responses. Given the key role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in synaptic plasticity and(More)
A mathematical model is derived to simulate the performance of spiral wound membrane modules for the pervaporative separation of binary liquid mixtures. Permeation through the polymer membrane is described by a detailed solution–diffusion model. Flory–Huggins theory is used to predict solubility of the penetrants, while the composition and temperature(More)
Imatinib, an orally administered tyrosine kinase inhibitor of PDGF receptor, c-abl and c-kit, is currently in clinical trials to assess its efficacy in malignant gliomas. Although imatinib does not readily penetrate an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), the extent to which it distributes into regions of high grade gliomas where the BBB is compromised has not(More)
This paper examines whether managers signal firms' future performance by managing earnings to exceed thresholds. Because managers' reporting discretion is bounded by the accounting regulations, managing earnings to exceed current period's thresholds reduces future earnings and therefore makes future earnings thresholds harder to reach. As a result, only(More)
It has been reported that rs940494 and rs805296 SNPs of apolipoprotein M (apoM) gene may confer the risk in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Han Chinese. However, a recent study demonstrated that rs805297 polymorphism is significantly associated with reduced total high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in(More)