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Electrophysiological studies have shown the enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats, which can be observed up to 7 weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colon inflammation, suggesting a mechanism for learning and triggering of pain memories in the ACC neuronal(More)
BACKGROUND Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is linked to increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) disease. However, the effect size of the association was not consistent. In this study, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of available cohort studies to determine the association between DR and CV disease, and to investigate the factors that influence(More)
Studies of both humans and animals suggest that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for processing pain perception. We identified that perigenul ACC (pACC) sensitization and enhanced visceral pain in a visceral hypersensitive rat in previous studies. Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Teasing apart the mechanisms that control the(More)
Within a biopsychosocial model of pain, pain is seen as a conscious experience modulated by mental, emotional and sensory mechanisms. Recently, using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective(More)
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) cause long-term disturbance of cerebral functions. The primary mechanism of neurotoxicity is related to their interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels. However, until now, the neurological targets for CTXs in the brain of intact animals have not been described. In our study, 1 day following oral exposure to 0.26 ng/g of Pacific(More)
The NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is up-regulated in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats induced by colonic anaphylaxis. It plays a critical role in modulation of ACC sensitization and visceral pain responses. Given the key role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in synaptic plasticity and(More)
This paper examines whether managers signal firms' future performance by managing earnings to exceed thresholds. Because managers' reporting discretion is bounded by the accounting regulations, managing earnings to exceed current period's thresholds reduces future earnings and therefore makes future earnings thresholds harder to reach. As a result, only(More)
Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC)(More)
Human studies have shown that multiple teeth loss was significantly associated with cognitive impairment, dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, the causal relationship between tooth loss and cognitive deficits has not been clarified. Rodents demonstrate human-like cognitive faculties. In this study by performing rat gambling task (RGT), we reported(More)
Vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) can enhance memory and cognitive functions in both rats and humans. Studies have shown that VNS influenced decision-making in epileptic patients. However, the sites of action involved in the cognitive-enhancement are poorly understood. By employing a conscious rat model equipped with vagus nerve cuff electrode, we assess the(More)