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Electrophysiological studies have shown the enhanced response of anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) to colorectal distension in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats, which can be observed up to 7 weeks following colonic anaphylaxis, independent of colon inflammation, suggesting a mechanism for learning and triggering of pain memories in the ACC neuronal(More)
Studies of both humans and animals suggest that anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is important for processing pain perception. We identified that perigenul ACC (pACC) sensitization and enhanced visceral pain in a visceral hypersensitive rat in previous studies. Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Teasing apart the mechanisms that control the(More)
Within a biopsychosocial model of pain, pain is seen as a conscious experience modulated by mental, emotional and sensory mechanisms. Recently, using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective(More)
Ciguatoxins (CTXs) cause long-term disturbance of cerebral functions. The primary mechanism of neurotoxicity is related to their interaction with voltage-gated sodium channels. However, until now, the neurological targets for CTXs in the brain of intact animals have not been described. In our study, 1 day following oral exposure to 0.26 ng/g of Pacific(More)
The NR2B subunit of NMDA receptor in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is up-regulated in viscerally hypersensitive (VH) rats induced by colonic anaphylaxis. It plays a critical role in modulation of ACC sensitization and visceral pain responses. Given the key role of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) in synaptic plasticity and(More)
Imatinib, an orally administered tyrosine kinase inhibitor of PDGF receptor, c-abl and c-kit, is currently in clinical trials to assess its efficacy in malignant gliomas. Although imatinib does not readily penetrate an intact blood-brain barrier (BBB), the extent to which it distributes into regions of high grade gliomas where the BBB is compromised has not(More)
This paper examines whether managers signal firms' future performance by managing earnings to exceed thresholds. Because managers' reporting discretion is bounded by the accounting regulations, managing earnings to exceed current period's thresholds reduces future earnings and therefore makes future earnings thresholds harder to reach. As a result, only(More)
It has been reported that rs940494 and rs805296 SNPs of apolipoprotein M (apoM) gene may confer the risk in the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and coronary artery disease (CAD) in the Han Chinese. However, a recent study demonstrated that rs805297 polymorphism is significantly associated with reduced total high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels in(More)
Human studies have shown that multiple teeth loss was significantly associated with cognitive impairment, dementia and Alzheimer's disease. However, the causal relationship between tooth loss and cognitive deficits has not been clarified. Rodents demonstrate human-like cognitive faculties. In this study by performing rat gambling task (RGT), we reported(More)
Pain contains both sensory and affective dimensions. Using a rodent visceral pain assay that combines the colorectal distension (CRD) model with the conditioned place avoidance (CPA) paradigms, we measured a learned behavior that directly reflects the affective component of visceral pain, and showed that perigenual anterior cingulate cortex (pACC)(More)