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The mammalian brain exhibits diverse types of neural plasticity, including activity-dependent neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. How transient activation of mature neurons leads to long-lasting modulation of adult neurogenesis is unknown. Here we identify Gadd45b as a neural activity-induced immediate early gene in mature hippocampal neurons. Mice with(More)
BACKGROUND & AIMS Alcohol abuse is a major cause of liver injury. The pathologic features of alcoholic liver disease develop over prolonged periods, yet the cellular defense mechanisms against the detrimental effects of alcohol are not well understood. We investigated whether macroautophagy, an evolutionarily conserved cellular mechanism that is commonly(More)
Autophagy is a tightly regulated catabolic mechanism that degrades proteins and organelles. Autophagy mediates programmed cell death under certain conditions. To determine the role of autophagy in T cells, we examined, in mouse CD4+ T cells, conditions under which autophagy is induced and alterations of the cell fate when autophagy is blocked. We have found(More)
The effector functions of CD8(+) T cells are influenced by tissue inflammatory microenvironments. IL-33, a member of the IL-1 family, acts as a danger signal after its release during cell necrosis. The IL-33/ST2 axis has been implicated in various Th2 responses. Its role in CD8(+) T-cell-mediated immune response is, however, not known. Here we find that(More)
OBJECTIVE Recent evidence suggests that functional deficiency in regulatory T cells (Tregs), an innate immunomodulator, exacerbates brain damage after cerebral ischemia. We therefore evaluated the effect of Treg transfer in rodent models of ischemic stroke and further investigated the mechanism underlying Treg-afforded neuroprotection. METHODS We examined(More)
Previous studies have suggested aberrant expression of membrane B7-H3 in tumor cells. This aim of the study was to determine the expression level of soluble B7-H3 (sB7-H3) in circulation and to subsequently evaluate the clinical significance of circulating B7-H3 in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The level of circulating B7-H3 was(More)
CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) can inhibit cytotoxic responses. Though several studies have analyzed Treg frequency in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) patients using flow cytometry (FCM), few studies have examined how intratumoral Tregs might contribute to immunosuppression in the tumor(More)
The stress-inducible molecules GADD45beta and GADD45gamma have been implicated in regulating IFNgamma production in CD4 T cells. However, how GADD45 proteins function has been controversial. MEKK4 is a MAP kinase kinase kinase that interacts with GADD45 in vitro. Here we generated MEKK4-deficient mice to define the function and regulation of this pathway.(More)
Expression of membrane CD276 (mB7-H3) has been reported on dendritic cells (DCs), monocytes, activated T cells, and various carcinoma cells. However, reports concerning its in vivo function have been inconsistent. Moreover, whether there is a soluble form of this protein is not known. In this study, using a sensitive dual monoclonal antibody sandwich(More)
T cell exhaustion is thought to be a natural mechanism for limiting immune pathology, although it may be desirable to circumvent this mechanism to help eliminate viral reservoirs or tumors. Although there are no definitive markers, a fingerprint for exhausted T cells has been described that includes the transmembrane proteins PD-1, LAG3, and Tim-3. However,(More)