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a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t Keywords: Parallel algorithms Real-time systems Zhang neural net (ZNN) Error functions Zhang matrix inverse (ZMI) Time-varying Drazin inverse (TVDI) In this Letter, by generalizing the notion of Zhang functions (ZFs) from previous work, a novel general-form Zhang function (NGFZF) is proposed, developed and investigated.(More)
To solve dynamic system of linear equations with square or rectangular system matrices in real time, a discrete-time Z-type model based on neural network is proposed and investigated. It is developed from and studied with the aid of a unified continuous-time Z-type model. Note that the framework of such a unified continuous-time Z-type model is generic and(More)
This paper primarily demonstrates the effectiveness of the Z-type methodology for solving the problem of time-variant matrix inverse (termed Zhang matrix inverse, ZMI). As a case study of ZMI with examples, the online solution of ZMI is investigated in this paper. Specifically, different Zhang functions (ZFs), which lead to different effective Z-type models(More)
As one of the most important factors influencing the development potential of the country, China's population attracts considerable attention. Some official organizations regularly publish the predictions of China's population every calendar year. However, most of the predictions use the standard cohort-component method, which does not allow for all(More)
In this paper, the tracking control problem of a 3-input 3-output nonlinear system is investigated and solved. By adopting and generalizing Zhang-gradient (ZG) method, as the novel combination of Zhang dynamics (ZD) and gradient dynamics (GD), in a quite different way (i.e., with GD used additionally once more), a ZG controller group is designed and(More)
The recovery and prediction of Northern American population data, which are closely related to the future development of Northern America and even the whole world, have become significant subjects and captured great attention among sociologists as well as scientists. However, most of the relevant researches are just based on fertility, mortality or other(More)
The Zhang-gradient (ZG) method has been proved to be powerful for control problems solving. In view of the boundedness and safety of practical actuators through limiting the input, the sigmoid function array (SFA) based ZG (SFABZG) controller, designed by the combination of the SFA and the ZG method, is proposed and investigated for output tracking of the(More)
Lately, Zhang et al have proposed the notion of infinitely many Z-type functions (ZTFs) leading to various Z-type neural nets (ZTNNs), and established a systematic approach (i.e., the general-form ZTNN, GFZTNN) for the real-time solution of a time-varying matrix inverse (also termed, Zhang matrix inverse, ZMI). Being a supplementary and in-depth research,(More)