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BACKGROUND In 2004, Afghanistan pioneered a balanced scorecard (BSC) performance system to manage the delivery of primary health care services. This study examines the trends of 29 key performance indicators over a 5-year period between 2004 and 2008. METHODS AND FINDINGS Independent evaluations of performance in six domains were conducted annually(More)
OBJECTIVE To examine historical estimates of infant and under-five mortality in Afghanistan, provide estimates for rural areas from current population-based data, and discuss the methodological challenges that undermine data quality and hinder retrospective estimations of mortality. METHODS Indirect methods of estimation were used to calculate infant and(More)
Availability of groundwater varies spatially and temporally depending upon the terrain. The scarcity of water affects the environmental and developmental activities of an area. Continuous failure of monsoon, increasing demand and over exploitation leads to depletion of ground­water level. This problem could be sorted out to certain extent by artificially(More)
The relationship between the time of onset of neuromuscular blockade and the time at which laryngoscopy was attempted was studied in patients presenting for emergency obstetric or emergency general surgical procedures. "Train-of-four" stimulation and visual observation of the evoked twitch response in the hand were used as a measure of the degree of(More)
Data mining has been used as a technology in various applications of engineering, sciences and others to analysis data of systems and to solve problems. Its applications further extend towards detecting cyber-attacks. We are presenting our work with simple and less efforts similar to data mining which detects email based phishing attacks. This work digs(More)
This investigation deals with single server queueing system wherein the arrival of the units follow Poisson process with varying arrival rates in different states and the service time of the units is arbitrary (general) distributed. The server may take a vacation of a fixed duration or may continue to be available in the system for next service. Using the(More)
CONTEXT Intrathecal use of butorphanol is less explored in human subjects. AIMS To compare the safety and efficacy of anesthesia and analgesia of intrathecal bupivacaine-butorphanol mixture with intrathecal bupivacaine-fentanyl mixture. SETTINGS AND DESIGN Tertiary level, teaching hospital. Prospective, randomized, double-blind study. MATERIALS AND(More)